| Steel (177) Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery (43)
Learn about the process of making steel.
| Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
| Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low
arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors
| Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite
crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled i...
| The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric furnace.
These furnaces are of various sizes and designs; their size may b...
| Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade
and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of
| Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen text
books on metallurgy and not find a definition of the word steel.
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in
steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal from
the ore. It remains in the steel when made by the so-called acid
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar t...
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It
is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably...
| Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types
are therefore primarily alloys of iron and carbon. Impurities and
their remedies are alw...
| Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
| Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pounds
a 1-in. bar will support just before breaking, a term called the
| Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication of
how a metal will perform under shock. Some engineers think that
| Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail
at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has
| Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of metals,
and is measured in as many different ways.
Scratch hardness is u...
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare alloys
now used in steel manufacture. Originally nickel was added to give
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic function
of opposing the disintegration and reconstruction of cementite.
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics
of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excelle...
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium,
carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel ...
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel, but
this is dependent on the carbon content. High carbon materially adds...
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a long
time. The celebrated and ancient damascus steel being a form of
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five years,
but they have not been widely exploited until since the war. Very...
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubbles
or blow holes forming while steel is solidifying. In fact, steel
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been the
object of steel makers for years to eliminate it. On cheap grades
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greater
detriment to steel than phosphorus. High sulphur up to 0.09 per
| Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese,
nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering
| Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction
in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches
| Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
| High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from
11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from 1,290
to 1,380 deg.F. and cooling in air or quenching in water or oil. A...
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air
or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold
working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut
surfaces will ...
| Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecting rods
are so severe that the methods of securing the desired qualities
| Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
| Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineering achievement
in which the science of metallurgy played an important pa...
| Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as carbureter
control levers, etc. The important criterion for parts of this ty...
| Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of the
connecting-rod bolt, the main-bearing bolt, the propeller-hub key,
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected
at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S.
| Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gear
forgings could be substituted by normalizing the forgings at a
| Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engine
was selected at the option of the manufacturer from one of two
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entire
Liberty engine, and, therefore, every metallurgical precaution
| Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance
to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is consid...
| Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine
applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the constructi...
| Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the percentage
of chromium raised slightly, an ideal transmission-gear material...
| Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following
minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per sq...
| Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock
less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes
| The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation must
be carefully supervised. This is especially true because of the
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent
depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are
| Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should
be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It
is then soft and ductile.
As the s...
| Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold,
as in the case of cold-rolled steel. Heat treatment of cold-worked
steel is a very delicate...
| Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800
to 2,000 deg.F. and forge thoroughly and uniformly. If the forging
operation is prolonge...
| Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F.
Do not hammer steel when it cools down to a dark cherry red, or
just below its hard...
| Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and
forge thoroughly. Do not under any circumstances attempt to harden
at the forging heat....
| Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends
very largely on the percentage of each element contained in the
steel. Steel containing f...
| Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-treating
them to meet the specifications demanded by some of the foreign
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than the drawing
temperature, but the time of soaking is more than double. Aft...
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of different
steels, but in order to secure the best results it is absolutely...
| Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
| Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or by
being packed. Packing is by far the most satisfactory method as it
| Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers
largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. Thes...
| High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
| Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. Pack the
work the same as for case-hardening except that it is not necess...
| Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufactured
at the Armory and all forgings for other ordnance establishments
| Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of producing
a high-carbon surface, or case, upon a low carbon steel article.
| Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those
special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For examp...
| Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot,
especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture
| Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.]
Each of these different packing materials has a different effect
upon the work in which it is heat...
| Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the box by
dumping the whole contents into the quenching tank. It is common
| The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in
case-hardening--possibly more so than in ordinary tempering. One
| Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slightly
above the critical temperature of the case, this temperature
| Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most common
quenching materials for case-hardening. Water is used for ordinary
| Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88,
consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical
| Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
| Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, Dayton,
Ohio, they have a large quantity of small shafts, Fig. 40, that
| The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufacture
of automobile and other parts which are likely to be subjected to
| Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the
introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened.
| Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the facilities
available in the locality where the shop is situated and the nat...
| A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactory
for closing up the boxes, and by observing the appearance of the
| Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of vie...
| The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-treatment
department, there is none that offers greater possibilities for
| Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a cast-iron
screen which forms a table or apron for the furnace. Directly ben...
| Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separator
and fanning mill which separates the foreign matter from the compound...
| Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at definite
rates in order to change its physical condition. Many objects may
| Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properties of
pure metals and their alloys is by an examination of their heating
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical. Apparently
the quick cooling prevents the normal change back to definite...
| Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
| Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear
Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr.
| Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types
of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite
high, which ca...
| Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon
content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed
a dual steel, allowing f...
| Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels
causes a complete solution or combination to take place between
the ferrite and pearlite, produ...
| Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be
accomplished at a temperature at just slightly above the critical
point. However, in practice the ...
| Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found
by careful annealing of forgings but the subsequent troubles in
the hardening plant will...
| The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obtained in
steel by heat treatment. This has been worked out by E. J. Janitz...
| Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company,
Syracuse, N. Y., runs day and night, and besides handling all the
| Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. Th...
| Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an
L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace
and the floor on the same ...
| The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange aro...
| Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the...
| The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment
which refines the core, which under the former high heat (1,700 deg.F.)
| Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel
gears are carburized separately owing to the difference in time
necessary for their carburization. Pract...
| Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several p...
| Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped
with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures
are in the hands of one man, who occupies...
| Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows:
The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in
the lower die, surrou...
| Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized
and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly,
these sleeves were given two treatme...
| Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are
heated in a cyanide bath. With this bath, the heat can be controlled
within 3 deg. The steel is evenl...
| Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the heat
treatment it is to receive, but this also depends on the kind of
| S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat treatments
to suit different steels and varying conditions. These have a...
| Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown graphically
in Fig. 65 to the series of illustrations on pages 137 to 144. T...
| Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
| The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very
different place from the dirty, dark smithshop in the corner with
the open coal forge. There, ...
| Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has
caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems
that when a firm spends from $75...
| Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, usually
contains from 80 to 125 points (or from 0.80 to 1.25 per cent)
| Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different qualities
of the steels they handle. Different uses requires different k...
| Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pressing
and drop forgings. Mining drills to harden only. Easily weldable.
| Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be recommended
for tools which have to withstand shocks, such as for cold chis...
| Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such tools
as taps and form cutters, which must keep their shape after harden...
| Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempered
will, if complex in shape, contain many internal stresses which may
| Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
| Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel is
as important as its heating. Quenching baths vary in nature, there
| The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally
harder and more brittle than is necessary, and in order to bring
it to the condition that m...
| Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches
100 deg.C. (212 deg.F.) the transformation begins, increasing in intensity
as the tem...
| Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a
piece of steel the very best possible treatment?
The best method is by microscopic examinatio...
| Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
| Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually very
limited, often consisting of a forge, a small open hard-coal furnace...
| Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
| Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in tool
holders of turret lathes were required. No proper tempering oven
| The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and Electric
Furnaces, Ltd., 6, Queenstreet, London, S. W.:
Two gages of 3...
| Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by the
various colors, or oxides, which appear on steel in tempering.
| High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed down
from father to son. The manufacture of tool steel is still an art
| Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
| Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known
to be detrimental to all steels. Sulphur causes red-shortness
and phosphorus causes col...
| Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great extent
upon its structure. The making of the structure begins under the
| Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
| Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw, milling
cutter or circular saw. Cut clear through the bar; do not nick o...
| Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scal...
| For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
| Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed steels
by various makers, it is always advisable to follow the direction...
| Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is particularly
desirable in the winter. Then heat slowly and carefully to a scal...
| Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
| Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats are
now made for treating high-speed steels. We recommend them for
| Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
| A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tungsten,
its red-hardness properties depending on chromium and cobalt inste...
| Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are given
by a maker whose steel is probably typical of a number of different...
| Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly and
thoroughly to a lemon heat. Do not forge at a lower heat. Do not
| Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring,
turning and planing where the cost of high-speed seems excessive.
They are also recommended ...
| Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired
furnaces are shown herewith. Figure 92 is a lead pot furnace, Fig.
93 is a vertical furnace with ...
| Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from furnaces
where high temperatures are maintained suffer in health as well...
| Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal
is being worked at a welding heat, the amount of flame that will
issue from an open-front f...
| Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the
one illustrated in Fig. 106 may prove serviceable before furnaces
required for plate work, where t...
| Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace
is that which is used for the heating of manganese and other alloy
steels, which after having b...
| Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fuels
etc., the following data is quoted from a paper by Seth A. Moulton
| Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the
measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' water
pyrometer because they can place a number of the balls or weights o...
| The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of
temperatures, between, say, 700 and 2,500 deg.F., was made more simple
| The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely necessary
that a measuring instrument be used which will give the operator an...
| Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one which
does not necessitate the use of an expensive laboratory equipment
| Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration
of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple
may be checked against a standard inst...
| Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be
taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured,
that the cold junctio...
| The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and substantial
in that it is not affected by the jar and vibration of the factory...
| Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Company
show different applications of the thermo-couples to furnaces of
| Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring temperature
are sketched in Fig. 123.
The instrument is light and port...
| Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is
largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat
| Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrometer is
dependent on the difference in temperature between its hot juncti...
| Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with
a zero adjuster, by means of which the pointer can be set to any
actual cold-junction temperature. ...
| Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of...
| Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to maintain
an operator at a central pyrometer, and by colored electric lights
| An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown
indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the
| Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples
as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in
| Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanical
injury. For this purpose tubes of various refractory materials
| Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the
overwhelming demand for iron products for the expanding railroads, the
| Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of Dean,
Gloucestershire, of a Scots father (David, 1772-1847) himself a note...
| Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Bessemer had
received applications from several ironmasters for licenses, which ...
| Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perhaps, only
an assumption; but that he was badly treated by Ebbw Vale is su...
| William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association was
published in the Scientific American on September 13, 1856. On
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor of
discovering the atmospheric process of making steel. In the present
Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
| Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which
distinguishes our country more remarkably from all others, than
the vast exten...
| Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its
execution than can be generated in the time necessary for its
| Regulating Power
27. Uniformity and steadiness in the rate at which machinery
works, are essential both for its effect and its duration. The
| Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame
does not altogether depend on the actual force employed in each
| Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the
employments of machinery. The half minute which we daily devote
to the wind...
| Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking
illustration of the power of machinery in accelerating certain
| Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to
enable many men to exert their whole force at a given point; and
| Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is
from the check which it affords against the inattention, the
| Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are
executed, and the exact similarity of the articles thus made,
produce a ...
| Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than
the perfect identity of things manufactured by the same tool. If
| Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
| Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is
essentially an art of copying. Under its two great divisions,
| Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent
application in the arts than that which has just been considered.
| Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid
state into a mould which retains them until they become solid, is
| Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals
having an exact resemblance to each other in external shape, is
adopted very ...
| Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the
arts. It is generally executed by means of large presses worked
with a screw...
| Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch
through the substance to be cut, either by a blow or by pressure.
| Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little
resemblance between the copy and the original. It is the
cross-section only o...
| Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used
for drawings or maps: the instrument is simple; and, although
| On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which
regulate the successful application of mechanical science to
| Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application
of machinery, and which govern the interior of all our great
| Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of
the few commodities required was conducted by barter, but as soon
| On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is
usually stated to depend upon the proportion between the supply
and the dem...
| On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what
may be called the momentary amount of price, we must next examine
| Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us
with comparatively little information respecting its value, if we
| Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its
ultimate analysis to the quantity of labour by which it was
| On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the
economy of a manufacture depends, is the division of labour
amongst the person...
| On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear
paradoxical to some of our readers that the division of labour
can be applie...
| On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the
application of the principle of the subdivision of labour, render
| On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in
chapter XIX of the operations in the art of pin-making, it will
be observed, t...
| On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of
large manufacturing establishments is confined to particular
districts. In t...
| On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of
competition is the production of a supply much larger than the
| Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made
previous to the commencement of the manufacture of any new
| On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails
amongst workmen in many manufacturing countries, that their own
interest and t...
| On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of
combining machinery, does not appear, if we may judge from the
| Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its
extensive utility, is the perfection and the cheap production of
| On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform
its work effectually, will depend chiefly upon the perfection
| On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes,
certain rules or laws which govern their actions towards each
other, and ...
| On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place
amongst manufacturers against persons having patents: and these
| On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against
machinery is, that it has a tendency to supersede much of the
hand labour wh...
| On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity
of those who make, and of those who use it, is directed to the
means of ...
| On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were
not merely prohibited by Act of Parliament from transporting
| On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as
illustrations of those general principles which it has been the
main object of the...