| Whiskey Making (106) Wine Making (105) Grape Growing (239) Beer Making (12) |
Discover how to cultivate grapes and find tips on growing under different soil / weather conditions
| Observations On Yeast|
That yeast is the main spring in distilling, is acknowledged by all
distillers, tho' but few if them understand it, either in its na...
| Receipt For Stock Yeast|
For a stock yeast vessel of two gallons, the size best adapted for that
Take one gallon good barley malt, (be sure it be o...
| To Know When Yeast Is Good Or Bad|
When you perceive your yeast working, observe if it works quick, sharp
and strong, and increasing in bulk nearly double what it was be...
| How To Renew Yeast When Sour|
About two hours before you begin to make your beer, take one pint of the
sour yeast, put it into a clean dish or vessel, and pour clea...
| Stock Yeast Good For Years|
When the weather is moderately warm in autumn or the spring, take of
your best stock yeast that has fermented about twenty four hours,...
| To Make The Best Yeast For Daily Use|
For three hogsheads take two handfuls of hops, put them into an iron
pot, and pour thereon three gallons boiling water out of your boi...
| Observations On Wood For Hogsheads|
The cheapest and easiest wrought wood is generally most used for making
mashing tubs, or hogsheads, and very often for dispatch or fro...
| White Oak|
Disapproving of black, tho' next in order to white oak staves for all
the vessels about the distillery ... as being the most durable o...
| To Sweeten Hogsheads By Scalding|
When you turn your vessels out of doors (for it is esteemed slothful and
a lazy mode to scald them in the still house,) you must wash ...
| Hogsheads Perfectly Sweet|
Scald them twice, as above directed, then light a brimstone match, flick
it on the ground, turn your hogshead down over it, let it sta...
| To Sweeten Hogsheads By Burning|
When you have scalded your hogsheads well, put into each, a large
handful of oat or rye straw, set it on fire, and stir it till it is ...
| To Mash Rye In The Common Mode|
Take four gallons cold water to each hogshead, add one gallon malt, stir
it well with your mashing stick, until the malt is thoroughly...
| The Best Method Of Distilling Rye|
Take four gallons boiling, and two gallons cold water--put it into a
hogshead, then stir in one and a half bushels chopped rye, let it...
| To Mash Two Thirds Rye And One Third Corn In Summer|
This I have found to be the nicest process belonging to distilling--the
small proportion of corn, and the large quantity of scalding w...
| To Distill One Half Rye And One Half Corn|
This method of distilling equal quantities of rye and corn, is more in
practice, and is much better than to distill unequal proportion...
| To Mash One Third Rye And Two Thirds Corn|
This I deem the most profitable mashing that a distiller can work, and
if he can get completely in the way of working corn and rye in ...
| Mash As Follows|
Have sweet hogsheads, good yeast and clean water in your boiler; when
the water is sharp, warm, or half boiling, put into every hogshe...
| To Mash Corn|
This is an unprofitable and unproductive mode of mashing, but there may
be some times when the distiller is out of rye, on account of ...
| To Make Four Gallons From The Bushel|
This is a method of mashing that I much approve of, and recommend to all
whiskey distillers to try it--it is easy in process, and is v...
| To Know When Grain Is Scalded Enough|
Put your mashing stick into your hogshead and stir it round two or three
times gently, then lift it out and give it a gentle stroke on...
| Directions For Cooling Off|
Much observation is necessary to enable the distiller to cool off with
judgment--which necessity is increased by the versatility of ou...
| To Ascertain When Rye Works Well In The Hogshead|
When mashed rye begins to work or ferment in the hogsheads, either in a
heavy, thick, or light bubbly top, both of which are unfavorab...
| To Prevent Hogsheads From Working Over|
If the stuff is cooled off too warm, or too much yeast is put in the
hogsheads, they will work over, and of course lose a great deal o...
| Observations On The Quality Of Rye For Distilling|
The best rye for distilling is that which is thoroughly ripe, before it
is cut, and kept dry till threshed; if it has grown on high or...
| Mode Of Chopping Rye And The Proper Size|
The mill stones ought to be burrs, and kept very sharp for chopping rye
for distillation; and the miller ought to be careful not to dr...
Cannot be ground too coarse, provided it is done even--there ought to be
no fine nor coarse grains in malt, but ground perfectly alike...
| How To Choose Malt|
Malt is chosen by its sweet smell, mellow taste, full flower, round body
and thin skin. There are two kinds used, the pale and the bro...
| How To Build A Malt Kiln In Every Distillery|
When setting up your stills, leave a space of about nine inches for a
small furnace between the large ones, extend it to your chimney ...
Give a preference to hops of a bright green colour, sweet smell, and
have a gummy or clammy effect when rubbed between the hands or fi...
| How To Order And Fill The Singling Still When Distilling Rye|
Scrape, clean, and grease the singling still, fill her up with beer, and
keep a good fire under her, till she be warm enough to head, ...
| Mode Of Managing The Doubling Still When Making Whiskey|
Let the doubling still be carefully cleaned and washed out, then be
filled with singlings and low wines left from the run preceding, a...
| Observations On The Advantages Of Making Strong And Good Whiskey With Stalement &c|
The distiller who makes whiskey for a market under the government of
inspection laws, too weak, sustains a loss of a cent for each deg...
| Distilling Of Buckwheat|
Buckwheat is an unprofitable grain for the distillers when distilled by
itself, but when mixed with rye, it will yield nearly as much ...
| Distilling Of Potatoes|
This is a branch of distilling that I cannot too highly recommend to the
attention of every American--nor can the cultivation of this ...
| Receipt To Prepare Potatoes For Distilling|
Wash them clean, and grind them in an apple mill, and if there be no
apple mill convenient, they may be scalded and then pounded--then...
| How To Distil Apples|
Apples ought to be perfectly ripe for distillation, as it has been
ascertained from repeated trials, that they produce more and better...
| How To Order Apples In The Hogsheads|
When the apples are ground put them into open hogsheads to ferment,
taking care not to fill them too full, or they will work over; set...
| How To Work Apples Slow Or Fast|
If the hogsheads ripens too fast for your stills, add every day to each
hogshead four gallons cold spring water, putting it into a hol...
| How To Judge When Apples Are Ready For Distilling|
Put your hand down into the hogsheads amongst the apples as far as you
can, and bring out a handful of pugs--squeeze them in your hand...
| How To Fill And Order The Singling Still When Running Apple Singlings|
When you perceive your apples ready for distilling, fill the singling
still with apples and water; using about half a hogshead apples ...
| How To Double Apple Brandy|
Fill the doubling still with singlings, and add a quart of lime, (which
will clear it) put fire under her and bring her to a run brisk...
| How To Prepare Peaches|
Peaches like apples ought to be equally ripe, in order to insure an
equal and regular fermentation--for where ripe and unripe fruit ar...
| How To Double And Single Peach Brandy|
The same process must be observed in running off peaches as in apples,
except that the singling still ought not to be run so fast, nor...
| The Best Method Of Setting Stills|
If stills are not set right, great injury may accrue to them, in burning
and damaging the sides, singeing the whiskey, and wasting of ...
| How To Prevent The Plastering Round Stills From Cracking|
This method of making water proof plastering on stills, is done entirely
in making the mortar, and putting it on, in making which, goo...
| To Set A Doubling Still|
As spirits can hardly be burned or singed in a doubling still, if not
before done in singling, all the precaution necessary is to set ...
| How To Clarify Whiskey &c|
Take any vessel of convenient size, take one end out and make it clean,
by scalding or otherwise; bore the bottom full of holes, a qua...
| How To Make A Brandy Resembling French Brandy From Rye Whiskey Or Apple Brandy|
Clarify the whiskey as the above receipt directs, after thus purifying,
add one third or one fourth of French brandy, and it will be t...
| How To Make A Spirit Resemble Jamaica Spirit Out Of Rye Whiskey|
This is done precisely in the manner laid down in the receipt for French
| How To Make A Resemblance Of Holland Gin Out Of Rye Whiskey|
Put clarified whiskey, with an equal quantity of water, into your
doubling still, together with a sufficient quantity of juniper berri...
| The Best Method Of Making Common Country Gin|
Take of singlings a sufficient quantity to fill the doubling still, put
therein ten or twelve pounds of juniper berries, with one shov...
| On Fining Liquors|
Isinglass is almost universally used in fining liquors. Take about half
an ounce to the barrel--beat it fine with a hammer, lay it in ...
| On Colouring Liquors|
One pound of brown sugar burnt in a skillet almost to a cinder, add a
quart of water, which when stirred, will dissolve the sugar--whe...
| To Correct The Taste Of Singed Whiskey|
Altho' this cannot be done effectually without clarifying, as
prescribed, but Bohea tea will in a great measure correct a slight
| To Give An Aged Flavor To Whiskey|
This process ought to be attended to by every distiller, and with all
whiskey, and if carefully done, would raise the character, and a...
| Observations On Weather|
Some seasons are better for fermentation than others. Should a hail
storm occur in the summer, the distiller should guard against cool...
| Observations On Water|
Distillers cannot be too particular in selecting good water for
distilling, when about to erect distilleries.
Any water will do for...
| Precautions Against Fire|
Cannot be too closely attended to. The store house, or cellar for
keeping whiskey in, ought to be some distance from the distillery, a...
| The Duty Of The Owner Of A Distillery|
The main and first object of the proprietor of a distillery, is gain or
profit--and the second, it is natural, should be the acquiring...
| The Duty Of An Hired Distiller|
Is to rise at four o'clock every morning. Wash and clean out the boiler,
fill her up with clean water, put fire under her, and to clea...
| Profits Of A Common Distillery|
Profits arising from a distillery with two common stills, one containing
110 gallons, and one containing 65 gallons that is well condu...
| Of Hogs|
Raising, feeding and fattening hogs on potale, a business pursued and
highly spoken of, but from my experience I have discovered that ...
| Of The Diseases Of Hogs|
The only disease that I know of which seems to be peculiar to hogs, is a
kind of leprosy, commonly called measles, when it seizes them...
| On Feeding Cattle And Milch Cows|
Potale is a great creator of milk, and will increase the quantity
greatly in cows yielding milk, but no so good. Young cattle thrive v...
| Observations On Erecting Distilleries|
Those who are about to erect distilleries, have a handsome subject for
consideration; the advantages, and the probable disadvantages t...
| On Wines|
Presuming this work may be rendered more desirable to farmers, from the
introduction of some receipts for making domestic wine from th...
| Directions For Making Cider British Mode|
The apples after being thrown into a heap should always be covered from
the weather. The later the cider is made the better, as the ju...
| The Following Is A Very Highly Approved American Mode Of Making Cider|
Take care to have every necessary utensil to be made use of in the whole
process, perfectly clean and free from every foreign smell. F...
| The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine|
Was communicated to the Burlington Society for promoting domestic
manufactures, by Joseph Cooper, Esq. of Gloucester county, state of ...
| Receipt For Making Honey Wine|
I put a quantity of the comb from which the honey had been drained, into
a tub, to which I add a barrel of cider, immediately from the...
| To Make Elderberry Wine|
The editor is happy in introducing the following receipts which he is
confident is hardly known in America. The great quantities of th...
| To Make Elderberry Wine To Drink Made Warm As A Cordial|
Equal quantities of berries and water boiled together, till the berries
break, then strain off the liquor, and to every gallon thereof...
| To Make Rye Malt For Stilling|
Steep it twenty four hours in warm weather, in cold, forty eight, so in
proportion as the weather is hot or cold; drain off the water,...
| Of Brewing Beer|
As the following is intended principally for the use of private
families, it will be necessary to begin with directions how to choose
| Of Mashing Or Raking Your Liquors|
Suppose you take six bushels of malt, and two pounds of hops, and would
make of it one barrel of strong, and two barrels of small beer...
| Of Working The Liquor|
In this, regard must be had to the water: liquor naturally grows warm in
working; therefore, in mild weather, it should be cold before...
| Of The Fining Of Malt Liquors|
It is most desirable to have beer fine of itself, which it seldom fails
to do in due time, if rightly brewed and worked; but as disapp...
| Of The Season For Brewing|
The season for brewing keeping-beer is certainly best before Christmas,
for then your malt is in perfection, not having time to contra...
| To Make Elderberry-beer Or Ebulum|
Take a hogshead of the first and strong wort, and boil in the same one
bushel of picked Elderberries, full ripe; strain off, and when ...
| To Make Improved And Excellent Wholesome Purl|
Take Roman wormwood two dozen, gentian-root six pounds; calamus
aromatics (or the sweet flag root) two pounds; a pound or two of the
| To Brew Strong Beer|
To a barrel of beer take two bushels of wheat just cracked in the mill,
and some of the flour sifted out of it; when your water is sca...
| To Make China Ale|
To six gallons of ale, take a quarter of a pound or more of China root,
thin sliced, and a quarter of a pound of coriander seeds, brui...
| To Make Ale Or Any Other Liquor That Is Too New Or Sweet Drink Stale|
To do this to the advantage of health, put to every quart of ale, or
other liquor, 10 or 12 drops of the true spirit of salt, and let ...
| To Recover Sour Ale|
Scrape fine chalk a pound, or as the quantity of liquor requires, more;
put it into a thin bag into the ale.
| To Recover Liquor That Is Turned Bad|
If any liquor be pricked or fading, put to it a little syrup of clay,
and let it ferment with a little barm, which will recover it; an...
| Directions For Bottling|
You must have firm corks, boiled in wort, or grounds of beer; fill
within an inch of the cork's reach, and beat it in with a mallet; t...
| To Make A Quarter Of A Hogshead Of Ale And A Hogshead Of Beer Of|
Take five strike of malt not ground too small; put in some boiling
water, to cover the bottom of your mashing-vat before...
| Of Spirituous Liquors Or Spirits|
Spirituous liquors are the produce of vinous ones, obtained by the
distillation of these last. The art of making wine is of the remo...
| Of The Formation Of Vinous Liquors With Grains In Order To Make Spirits|
The art of extracting wine from the juice of the grape, not being the
object of this book, I shall confine myself to what is necessa...
| Of The Art Of Brewing|
The art of brewing consists:
1st. In the sprouting of a proportion of grain, chiefly barley. This
operation converts into a sacchar...
| Of The Distiller Of Whiskey|
Whiskey is made either with rye, barley, or Indian corn. One, or all
those kinds of grains is used, as they are more or less abundant ...
| Of Fermentation|
"Fermentation is a spontaneous and intestine motion, which takes
place amongst the principles of organic substance deprived ...
| Of The Proportions Of The Elements Necessary To Form A Good Vinous Liquor|
What are the proportions of the elements necessary to form a good vinous
We owe the important knowledge of those proporti...
| A Comparison Of The Processes Of The Brewer With Those Of The Whiskey Distiller|
From the experiments of one of the most learned chymists of Europe, it
has been demonstrated, that the proportions the most advantag...
| Defects In The Usual Method Of Making Whiskey|
1st. The most hurtful of all for the interests of the distillers, is
undoubtedly the weakness of the vinous liquor. We have seen tha...
| Description Of The Process The Most Advantageous To Make Whiskey|
[TR: The next two paragraphs were cut short, however attempted
re-constructed for clarity]
As it is demonstrated that the spirit ...
| The Room Of Infusion|
It is here that the liquor destined to make whiskey, should be prepared,
and made rich enough to procure a good fermentation. To thi...
| Use Of The Kettle|
The kettle is destined to make the infusion of the grain, and boil it so
as to convert it into wort. By that operation I make the li...
| The Room For Fermentation|
The room destined to the fermentation must be close, lighted by two or
three windows, and large enough to contain a number of hogshe...
| Of The Room For Distillation|
We have hitherto considered the liquor as containing only principles
upon which the air has no action, and from which it can only ex...
| Of The Urns|
These are copper vessels, thus called from their resembling those
funeral vases of the ancients. Mine have a bottom of about 18 inches...
| Effects Of This Apparatus|
Although the still might contain 400 gallons, there must be only 200
gallons put into it: the rest remaining empty, the vapors devel...
| Of Ferments|
They are of two kinds; the very putrescent bodies, and those supplied by
the oxigen. Animal substances are of the first kind: acids,...
| Of The Areometer Or Proof Bottle|
This instrument is indispensable to the distiller: it ascertains the
value of his spirits, since it shows the result of their differ...
| Advantages Of My Method|
The first of all, is derived from the composition of a vinous liquor,
richer, and more proper to raise a vigorous fermentation, than...
| The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers|
Having indicated the most proper means of obtaining spirits, I will now
offer to the public the manner of making Gin, according to t...
| Remarks On Its History In America Especially At The West--its Progress And Its Future|
In an old chronicle, entitled, "The Discovery of America in the Tenth
Century," by CHARLES C. PRASTA, published at Stralsund, we fin...
| Propagation Of The Vine|
This would seem to be the most natural mode, were not the grape even
more liable to sport than almost any other fr...
| The Propagating House|
I will only give a description of a lean-to of the cheapest kind, for
which any common hot-bed sash, six feet long, can be used.
| Mode Of Operating|
The wood should be cut from the vines in the fall, as soon as the
leaves have dropped. For propagating, use only firm, well-ripened wo...
| By Cuttings In Open Air|
This is certainly the easiest and most simple method for the
vineyardist; can be followed successfully with the majority of
| Mode Of Operating|
There are several methods, which are followed with more or less
success. I will first describe that which I have found most successful...
| By Layering|
This is a very convenient method of increasing such varieties as will
not grow readily from cuttings; and vines thus propagated will, ...
| By Grafting|
The principal advantages to be gained by this method are: 1st. The
facility by which new and rare kinds may be increased, by grafting ...
| Location And Soil|
As the selection of a proper location is of vast importance, and one of
the main conditions of success, great care and judgment should...
| Preparing The Soil|
In this, the foundation of all grape-growing, the vineyardist must also
look to the condition in which he finds the soil. Should it be...
| Choice Of Varieties|
It is a very difficult matter, in a vast country like ours, where the
soil and climate differ so much, to recommend any thing; and I t...
| The Concord|
This grape seems to have given the most general satisfaction all over
the country, and seems to be _the_ "grape for the million." Wher...
| Norton's Virginia|
This, so far, is the leading grape for red wine, and its reputation
here and in the entire West is now so fully established, that it w...
This is a truly delicious grape, but somewhat tender, and wants a long
season to fully ripen its fruit and bring out all its good qual...
Is much recommended by Eastern authorities, and where it succeeds, is
certainly a fine grape and makes a delicious wine. Here at the W...
| Hartford Prolific|
This is immensely productive; of very fair quality here; hardy and
healthy; and if planted for early marketing, will give general
Hardy, healthy and productive; will make a fair wine, but is here not
equal even to the Concord, and far behind the Norton's Virginia ...
The distance at which the vines may be planted will of course vary
somewhat with the growth of the different varieties. The rows may...
| Treatment Of The Vine The First Summer|
The first summer after planting nothing is necessary but to keep the
ground free from weeds, and mellow, stirring freely with hoe, rak...
| Treatment Of The Vine The Second Summer|
We find the young vine at the commencement of this season pruned to
three buds of the last season's growth. From these we may expect f...
| Treatment Of The Vine The Third Season|
At the commencement of the third season, we find our vine pruned to two
spurs of two eyes each, and four lateral canes, of from four t...
| Treatment Of The Vine The Fourth Summer|
We may now consider the vine as established, able to bear a full crop,
and when tied to the trellis in spring, to present the appearan...
| Training The Vines On Arbors And Walls|
This is altogether different from the treatment in vineyards; the first
has for its object to grow the most perfect fruit, and to brin...
| Other Methods Of Training The Vine|
There are many other systems in vogue among vine-dressers in Germany
and France, but as our native grapes are so much stronger in grow...
| Diseases Of The Vine|
I cannot agree with Mr. FULLER that the diseases of the vine are not
formidable in this country. They are so formidable that they thre...
| Insects Injurious To The Grape|
The grape has many enemies of this kind, but if they are closely
watched from the beginning their ravages are easily kept within prope...
These are sometimes very troublesome at the time of ripening, and
especially the oriole is a "hard customer," as he will generally dip...
Although our winters are seldom severe enough to destroy the hardy
varieties, yet they will often fatally injure such half hardy varie...
| Girdling The Vine To Hasten Maturity|
The practice of girdling to induce early ripening is supposed to have
been invented by Col. BUCHATT, of Metz, in 1745. He claimed for ...
| Manuring The Vine|
As remarked before, this will seldom be necessary, if the vintner is
careful enough to guard against washing of the top-soil, and to t...
| Thinning Of The Fruit|
This will sometimes be necessary, to more fully develop the bunches.
The best thinning is the reduction of the number of bunches at th...
| Renewing Old Vines|
Should a vine become old and feeble, it can be renewed by layering. The
vine is prepared in the following manner: Prune all the old wo...
| A Few Necessary Improvements|
_Pruning Shears._ These are very handy, and with them the work can be
done quicker, and with less labor, as but a slight pressure of t...
| Gathering The Fruit For Market|
In this, the vineyardist, of course, only aims at profit, and for that
purpose the grapes are often gathered when they are hardly
| Preserving The Fruit|
For this purpose, the fruit must be thoroughly ripe. When fully ripe,
the stem will turn brown, and shrivel somewhat. The fruit is the...
| Gathering The Fruit To Make Wine|
For this purpose, the grapes should hang as long as it is safe to allow
them; for it will make a very material difference in the quali...
| Varieties Of Grapes|
I would here, again remark, that I consider the question of "what to
plant" as chiefly a local one, for which I do not presume to la...
Originated with Mr. E. BULL, of Concord, Mass. This variety seems to be
the choice of the majority throughout the country, and however...
| Norton's Virginia (norton's Seedling Virginia Seedling)|
Originated by DR. N. NORTON, of Richmond, Virginia. This grape has
opened a new era in American grape culture, and every successive ye...
| Herbemont (herbemont Madeira Warren)|
Origin uncertain. Wherever this noble grape will succeed and fully
ripen, it is hard to find a better, for table, as well as for wine....
| Hartford Prolific|
Raised by Mr. STEEL, of Hartford, Conn.: hardy, vigorous and
productive; bunch large, shouldered, rather compact; berry full medium,
Origin uncertain; from Western New York; vigorous, hardy and
productive; free from disease; bunch medium, long and narrow, generally
| Delaware Vineyard|
First disseminated and made known to the public by Mr. A. THOMPSON, of
Delaware, Ohio. This is claimed by many to be the best Ameri...
| Cynthiana (red River)|
Origin unknown--said to come from Arkansas. This grape promises fair to
become a dangerous rival to Norton's Virginia, which variety i...
Closely resembles the foregoing, and will also make an excellent wine
of a similar character. I consider both of these varieties as gr...
| Taylor (bullitt)|
This grape, under proper treatment, has proved very productive with me,
and will make a wine of very high quality. The bunches and ber...
This new grape, grown from the seed of the Concord, by that
enthusiastic and warm-hearted horticulturist, SAMUEL MILLER, of
Another very promising white grape--a strong grower, and healthy; may
be somewhat too late in the east, but will, I think, be valuable...
| Rogers' Hybrid No 1|
This variety, which is also too late in ripening for the East, to be
much esteemed there, fruited with me last season, and more than
| Creveling (catawissa) (bloom)|
This grape, although not quite perhaps so early as has been claimed for
it--ripening about five days after Hartford Prolific--is yet o...
| North Carolina Seedling|
Bunch large, shouldered, compact; berry large, oblong, black, with blue
bloom; pulpy, but sweet and good; ripens only a few days after...
For the West, and very likely further South, this is a very desirable
grape for wine, of the Herbemont class. Bunch compact and heavy,...
Mr. FULLER evidently does not know this grape, as he says it is the
same as Logan. The Rulander we have here, is claimed to be a true
| Louisiana (burgunder)|
Introduced here by Mr. F. MUENCH, who received it from Mr. THEARD, of
Louisiana, where it has been cultivated for some time. Some clai...
| Alvey (hagar)|
This nice little grape will certainly make one of the most delicious
red wines we have, if it can only be raised in sufficient quantit...
Bunch medium, very compact, shouldered; berry medium, round,
greenish-white, covered with white bloom; thick skin, pulpy, but very
| Blood's Black|
Has often been confounded with Mary Ann, as both varieties were
disseminated here, by different persons, under the same name. The true...
| Union Village|
Perhaps the largest native grape, of fair quality; bunch large, heavy
and compact, shouldered; berry very large, oval, black, with blu...
For those who do not object to a good deal of foxy flavor, this will be
a valuable market grape, on account of its earliness, beautifu...
For family use, there is at present no grape here at the West, which is
superior to this in quality; and although it will not pay to p...
| Ives' Seedling (ives' Madeira)|
This variety is recommended so much lately, as a superior grape for red
wine, that I will mention it here, although I have not yet fru...
| Minor Seedling (venango)|
This grape has attracted some attention lately--some persons claiming
for it superior qualities as a _wine_ grape, even classing it wi...
| Mary Ann|
The earliest grape we have--healthy, hardy and productive--but in point
of quality, a rather poor Isabella, which it much resembles.
| Northern Muscadine|
Very productive and healthy, but too foxy, and liable to drop from the
bunch when ripe.
Bunch medium, compact, sometimes shouldered...
Ripens about same time with Hartford Prolific--but rather inferior in
quality. Bunch long, loose, shouldered; berry medium, oval; rese...
Resembling Isabella, but more free from disease; good grower and
productive; will suit those who like the Isabella.
| Hyde's Eliza (canby's August)|
Bunch medium, compact; berry medium, round, black, juicy; rather
pleasant, but unproductive, and of little value, where better varieti...
| Marion Port|
Resembles the foregoing; may, perhaps, make a better wine, but cannot
| Poeschel's Mammoth|
Grown here, from seed of the Mammoth Catawba, by Mr. MICHAEL POESCHEL.
Bunch medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry very large...
| Cape (alexander Schuylkill Muscadell)|
Bunch rather small, compact; berry medium, black, round, pulpy, rather
sweet, dark juice. Said to make a good red wine, but my experie...
| Dracut Amber|
A Fox Grape, pale red, pulpy, inferior in quality and color to Perkins,
which it closely resembles; ripens about same time.
| Elsinburgh (missouri Bird's Eye)|
This old variety was largely disseminated under the latter name, by
NICHOLAS LONGWORTH, of Cincinnati. It is a nice little grape; but ...
| Garber's Albino|
A grape of very fair quality, and rather early, but a shy bearer. Bunch
small, rather loose; berry medium, pale yellow, sweet and good...
A strong grower; said to be very productive; resembling Clinton in
foliage and general habit. Bunch small, compact; berry below medium...
Of the Herbemont class, but about a week earlier; of good quality, but
too unproductive to be recommended. Bunch medium, compact, shou...
| North America|
Early and hardy, but too unproductive, and bunch too small. Bunch
small, shouldered; berry round; of very good quality for its season;...
This well known grape was brought into notice by Major ADLUM, of
Georgetown, D.C., who thought he had, by its introduction, conferred ...
A seedling of the foregoing, raised by Mrs. DIANA CREHORE. Perhaps one
of the most variable of all the grapes, being very fine one sea...
Unworthy of cultivation here, but said to be better at the North. Bunch
long, loose, shouldered; berry medium, oval, black; tough pulp...
Closely resembling the Isabella, but ripens more evenly, and is of
somewhat better quality.
Bunch large, loose, shouldered; berry black, large, sweet and buttery;
of very good quality, but very much subject to disease. Ripens ...
Bunch large and loose; berry pale amber, covered with white bloom;
sweet, tolerable flavor, but poor bearer, and subject to mildew. Ri...
| Allen's Hybrid (allen's White Hybrid)|
Bunch large and loose, shouldered; berry medium, nearly round; white,
without pulp, juicy and delicious; quality very good, but variab...
| Cuyahoga (coleman's White)|
Much recommended in Ohio, where it originated, but unworthy of culture
here, being a poor grower, a shy bearer and very much subject t...
This is, in dry seasons, a really fine grape, but subject to
leaf-blight and mildew in hot seasons. Bunch often a foot long, loose,
Bunch long and loose, large, shouldered; berry medium, round, pale red,
with fine lilac bloom; pulpy; of fair quality, but subject to
| Rogers' Hybrid No 15|
Bunch large, loose, shouldered; berry above medium, red with blue
bloom, roundish-oblong, pulpy, with peculiar flavor, sweet and juicy...
Of all the humbugs ever perpetrated upon the grape-growing public, this
is one of the most glaring. The vine, although a rank and heal...
| Massachusetts White|
This was sent me some eight years ago, by B. M. WATSON, as "the best
and hardiest white grape in cultivation," and he charged me the
| Gathering The Grapes|
Although I have described the process already, I will here again
reiterate that the grapes should be thoroughly _ripe_. This does not
| The Wine-cellar|
As the wine-cellar and press-house are generally built together, I will
also describe them together. A good cellar should keep about a...
| Apparatus For Wine-making--the Grape Mill And Press|
This mill can be made very simple, of two wooden rollers, fastened in a
square frame, running against each other, and turned with a cr...
| Fermenting Vats|
These should correspond somewhat with the size of the casks we intend
to fill; but they are somewhat unhandy if they hold more than, s...
| The Wine Casks|
These should be made of well-seasoned white oak staves, and can, of
course, be of various sizes to meet the wants of the vintner. The ...
| Making The Wine|
As we have our apparatus all prepared now, we can commence the
operation itself. This can be done in different ways, according to the
| After Treatment Of The Wine|
Even if the wine was perfectly fine and clear, when drawn off, it will
go through a second fermentation as soon as warm weather sets i...
| Treatment Of Flat And Turbid Wine|
The cause of this is generally a want of Tannin. If the wine has a
peculiar, flat, soft taste, and looks cloudy, this is generally the...
| Use Of The Husks And Lees|
These should be distilled, and will make a very strong, fine flavored
brandy. The husks are put into empty barrels or vats--stamped do...
| Dr Gall's And Petiol's Method Of Wine Making|
The process of wine making before described, however, can only be
applied in such seasons, and with such varieties of grapes, that
| The Must Scale Or Saccharometer|
The most suitable one now in use is the _Oechsle's_ must scale,
constructed on the principle that the instrument sinks the deeper into...
| The Acidimeter And Its Use|
"The first instrument of this kind which came into general use, was one
invented by DR. OTTO, and consists of a glass tube, from ten t...
| The Change Of The Must By Fermentation Into Wine|
Let us glance for a few moments at this wonderful, simple, and yet so
complicated process, to give a clearer insight into the function...
| Normal Must|
"Experiments continued for a number of years have proved that, in
favorable seasons, grape juice contains, on the average, in 1,000 lb...
| The Must Of American Grapes|
If we examine the must of most of our American wine grapes closely, we
find that they not only contain an excess of acids in inferior ...
| Wine Making Made Easy|
Some of my readers may think I did not look much to this, which I told
them was one of the objects of this little work. To vindicate i...
| The Domestication Of The Grape|
The domestication of an animal or a plant is a milestone in the
advance of agriculture and so becomes of interest to every human
| The European Grape|
The European grape, Vitis vinifera (Fig. 1), is the grape of ancient
and modern agriculture. It is the vine which Noah planted after t...
| American Grapes|
Few other plants in the New World grow wild under such varied
conditions and over such extended areas as the grape. Wild grapes are
| Grape Regions And Their Determinants|
Happily, the grape in its great diversity of forms accommodates itself
to many conditions, so that some variety of the several culti...
| The Grape Regions Of America|
There are four chief grape-growing regions in North America, with
possibly twice as many more subsidiary ones. These several regions,
| The Determinants Of Grape Regions|
Climate, soil, site, the surface features of the land, insects, fungi
and commercial geography are the chief factors that determine re...
The grape commends itself to commercial and amateur growers alike by
its ease of propagation. The vines of all species may be propag...
Growing seedling grapes is the simplest of operations. The seeds are
taken from the grapes at harvest time, after which they must pass...
| Dormant Cuttings|
Vines for vineyards, with the exception of varieties of Rotundifolia,
are propagated from cuttings of hard wood taken from the season'...
| Herbaceous Cuttings|
Grapes are easily propagated from herbaceous cuttings, although since
the vines are weak and the method expensive, they are seldom use...
The grape is readily propagated from layers of either green or mature
wood, the method being certain, convenient and producing extra
Since grafting grapes is intimately connected with stocks, the growing
of which is a modern practice, grafting is thought of as a new ...
| Pedigreed Grape Vines|
Many viticulturists, in common with orchardists, believe that their
plants should be propagated only from parents which have good
| Adaptations Of Resistant Stocks To Soils And Climates|
Resistance, of course, counts for naught in a stock which comes from a
species unsuited to the soil and climate or other circumstances...
| Proper Planting Of Grafted Vines|
Europeans and Californians long ago learned that failures with grafted
vines often came from setting the vines too deep in the soil, t...
| Influence Of The Stocks On The Cion|
Up to the present, the growing of grafted grapes has been carried on
with little thought of the mutual influence of stock and cion; gr...
| Direct Producers|
Attempts innumerable have been and are still being made to secure, by
hybridizing V. vinifera and American species of grapes, varietie...
| The Vineyard And Its Management|
A vineyard is more artificial than other plantations of fruits, since
the vine requires greater discipline under cultivation than tr...
| Laying Out The Vineyard|
Vineyards are laid out for the most part after accepted patterns for
each of the great grape regions of America. The vines are always
| Preparation For Planting|
It is impossible to put too much emphasis on the necessity of thorough
preparation of the land before planting the grape. Extra expend...
| Selecting And Preparing The Vines|
Young grape vines covet life, for they are usually vigorous and not
easily injured. Hence, the plants may be brought from a distance
The dangers and difficulties of planting hardwooded plants are greatly
exaggerated. The tyro, in particular, is impressed with his
| Care Of Young Vines|
Virgil calls the period in the life of the vine between the setting
and the first vintage, the "tender nonage," and tells us that at t...
| Catch-crops And Cover-crops|
A catch-crop is one grown between the rows of another crop for profit
from the produce. A cover-crop is a temporary crop grown, as the...
Grape-growers are not in the fog that befuddles growers of tree-fruits
in regard to tillage. He is a sloven, indeed, who permits his v...
The grape, as a rule, withstands drought very well, several species
growing wild on the desert's edge. Even in the semi-arid regions o...
| Fertilizers For Grapes|
As regards fertilizers, the grape-grower has much to learn and in
learning he must approach the problem with humility of mind. For i...
| An Experiment In Fertilizing Grapes|
The New York Agricultural Experiment Station is experimenting with
fertilizers for grapes at Fredonia, Chautauqua County, the chief gr...
| Pruning The Grape In Eastern America|
The inexperienced look on pruning as a difficult operation in
grape-growing. But once a few fundamentals are grasped, grape-pruning
| Pruning And Training Distinguished|
The grape is pruned to increase in various ways the economic value of
the plant by increasing the quantity and value of the crop. This...
| Some Principles Of Pruning|
Leaving the shaping of the plant out of consideration and having in
mind pruning proper, all efforts in pruning are directed toward tw...
| Renewing Fruiting Wood|
There are two ways of renewing the fruiting wood on a grape-vine, by
canes and from spurs. The manner of renewing refers to pruning an...
| The Work Of Pruning|
The pruner may take his choice between several styles of hand
pruning-shears with which to do his work. The knife is seldom used
| The Trellis|
The trellis is a considerable item in the grape-grower's budget, since
it must be renewed every fifteen years or thereabouts. Wires ar...
| Methods Of Training Grapes In Eastern America|
The grape-grower takes great liberties with Nature in training his
plants. No other fruit is so completely transformed by the grower...
| Classification Of Methods Of Training The Grape In Eastern America|
I. Shoots upright:
1. Chautauqua Arm.
2. Keuka High Renewal.
II. Shoots drooping:
| Training On Arbors Pergolas And As Ornamentals|
The grape is much used to cover arbors, pergolas, lattices and to
screen the sides of buildings, few climbing plants being more
| Pruning And Training Muscadine Grapes|
The Muscadine grapes of the South are so distinct in characters of
growth and fruit-bearing that their requirements as to pruning and
| Rejuvenating Old Vines|
When pruning and training are neglected, a vineyard soon becomes a
sorry company of halt and maimed vines. These neglected vines can
| Grape-pruning On The Pacific Slope|
The methods of pruning and training native grapes, discussed in the
last two chapters, do not apply to the Vinifera grapes grown in ...
| Vine Pruning In California|
The systems of pruning in use in California may be divided into two
classes according to the arrangement of the arms on the trunk of t...
| European Grapes In Eastern America|
As we have seen, there were many efforts to grow European grapes in
America during the first two centuries in the settlement of the
| European Grapes At The New York Experiment Station|
In the spring of 1911, the Station obtained cuttings of 101 varieties
of European grapes from the United States Department of Agricult...
| Grapes Under Glass|
Grape-growing under glass is on the decline in America. Forty or fifty
years ago the industry was a considerable one, grapes being r...
| The Grapery|
Almost any of the various modifications of greenhouses can be adapted
to growing grapes. Firms constructing greenhouses usually have h...
Out of the 2000 or more Vinifera grapes, probably not more than a
score are grown under glass, and of these but a half dozen are
| Planting And Training|
Two-year-old vines are most commonly planted. The vines are set inside
the house at least a foot from the walls and four feet apart. T...
| Care Of The Vines|
With the cultivation of all varieties indoors, more clusters set than
the vines can carry. This means that a part of the clusters must...
Several pests vex the gardener in growing grapes indoors. Of these,
mealy-bug, red-spider, thrips and mildew are most troublesome. In ...
| Grape Pests And Their Control|
In common with other cultivated fruits, grapes are at the mercy of
numerous insect and fungous pests unless man intervenes with reme...
| Insect Pests|
Insects troubling the grapes are numerous, at least 200 having been
described in America, most of which have their habitat on the wild...
| Fungous Diseases Of The Grape|
The grape is ravaged by four or five fungous diseases in America,
unless the utmost vigilance is exercised to keep the parasites in
| Control Of Insects And Diseases|
From the number of insects and diseases found on the grape, it would
seem that, literally, "pestilence walketh in darkness and destruc...
| Marketing The Crops And Vineyard Returns|
Viticulture, as all divisions of agriculture, is made up of two quite
distinct phases of activity: growing the crop and marketing th...
| Harvesting In The East And North|
As the consummation of the care of the vine, the in-gathering of the
crop is celebrated in all European countries with rejoicings in s...
| Harvesting And Handling Muscadine Grapes|
The Muscadine grapes of the South Atlantic and Gulf states are unique
in vine and fruit, are used for different purposes and go to dif...
| Handling The Grape In California|
Grapes are grown in California for three purposes, wine, raisins and
the table. The handling of the crop for raisins and wine is best ...
Table-grapes from both eastern and western grape regions are now
almost entirely shipped in carload lots. Since few grape-growers are
| Vineyard Returns|
Grape-growing as a business is a comparatively new industry in
America. It is true that the first attempts at growing this fruit were
| Grape Products|
Over-production, with the attendant losses caused by glutted markets,
is a factor which, like frosts and freezes, is ever in the min...
The manufacture and use of wine in America, as has been intimated, is
likely to cease through prohibition. Therefore, whatever may be ...
When properly made, grape-juice is the undiluted, unsweetened,
unfermented juice of the grape and contains no preservatives,
The grape is best conserved as a raisin. Canning is seldom practiced
with this fruit. A raisin is a dried grape. Tree-fruits are evapo...
A very good vinegar can be made from grapes, although as yet this
outlet for over-production is not largely utilized in America. Grape...
| By-products Of Grape Industries|
There are several valuable by-products in the wine-making and
grape-juice industries, and even raisin-making yields a by-product in
| Domestic Uses For Grapes|
At present, when food conservation is being emphasized everywhere,
mention of the domestic use for grapes is particularly appropriate....
Chance, pure and simple, has been the greatest factor in the
production of varieties of American grapes. From the millions of wild
| Grape Hybrids|
As early as 1822, Nuttall, a noted botanist, then at Harvard,
recommended "hybrids betwixt the European vine and those of the United
| Hybridizing The Grape|
Hybridization has been the chief means of improving the grape. At
present, from what is being accomplished by many workers, it looks a...
| Results Of Grape-breeding|
There are now 2000 or more varieties of grapes of American origin, all
produced within approximately a century. It is doubtful whether...
There yet remain several phases of grape-culture essential to success,
none of which quite deserves a chapter and none of which prop...
The blooming of the vine had little significance to the grape-grower,
the blooming period being so late that grapes are seldom caught ...
| Ringing Grape Vines|
The ringing of woody plants is a well-known horticultural practice.
Three objects may be attained by ringing: unproductive plants may ...
| Bagging Grapes|
In some localities bagging is considered an essential to profitable
grape-growing. The bags serve to protect the grapes against birds....
| Winter-protection Of Grapes|
With a little care as to winter-protection, grapes may be grown
profitably in northern regions where, without protection, the vines
| Ripening Dates And Length Of Season For Grapes|
Every grape-grower should know when his varieties may be expected to
ripen and the length of season that they will keep. The commercia...
| Grape Botany|
The grape-grower must know the gross structure and the habits of
growth of the plants properly to propagate, transplant, prune and
| Plant Characters And Growth Habits Of The Grape|
A grape plant is a complex organism with its many separate parts
especially developed to do one or a few kinds of work. The part of a
| The Genus Vitis|
The genus Vitis belongs to the vine family (Vitaceae) in which most
botanists also put the wood-vines (Ampelopsis), of which Virginia
| Species Of American Grapes|
The number of species of grapes in the world depends on the arbitrary
limits set for a species of this fruit, and knowledge of the gen...
| Varieties Of Grapes|
Nature has expended her bounties in fullest measure for the vineyard.
More than 2000 varieties of grapes are described in American
Actoni is a table-grape of the Malaga type which ripens at Geneva, New
York, late in October, too late for the average s...
Randall, Rogers No. 15
The qualities commending Agawam are large size and attractive
appearance of bunch an...
This is one of the varieties commonly found in eastern markets from
Almeria and Malaga, Spain, although occasionally it ...
The notable qualities of America are vigor of growth and health of
foliage in vine, and persistence of berr...
Aminia is one of the best early grapes, its season being with or a
little after Moore Early. The grapes are of...
| August Giant|
August Giant is a hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera in which the
fruit characters are those of the latter s...
Bacchus is an offspring of Clinton which it resembles in vine and leaf
characters, but surpasses in quality of ...
This is a Hungarian wine grape but its high quality and early season
make it a desirable table-grape in the East. It see...
Barry (Plate VII) is one of the best American black grapes, resembling
in berry and in flavor and keeping qual...
Another of T. V. Munson's hybrids is Beacon. It is not well adapted to
northern regions but does very well i...
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)
In Berckmans we have the fruit of Delaware on the vine of Clinton. The
berry and bunch resemble D...
| Black Eagle|
The fruit of Black Eagle is of the best, but the vine lacks in vigor,
hardiness and productiveness and is self...
| Black Hamburg|
Black Hamburg (Plate VI) is an old European sort, long the mainstay in
forcing-houses in Belgium, England and America an...
| Black Malvoise|
This variety is rather widely grown in California as an early
table-grape and might be worth trying in eastern grape reg...
| Black Morocco|
Black Morocco very generally meets the approval of grape-growers on
the Pacific slope without being a prime favorite for...
Brighton (Plate VIII) is one of the few Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids
which have attained prominence in commercial...
(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana)
Brilliant is a cross between Lindley and Delaware. In cluster and size
of berry it resembles Lin...
In spite of many encomiums in the past quarter century, Brown has not
received favorable recognition from fruit-growers....
| Campbell Early|
The meritorious qualities of Campbell Early (Plate IX) are: The grapes
are high in quality when mature; free f...
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)
Canada is considered the most desirable hybrid between Vulpina and
Vinifera. The variety shows Vinife...
Canandaigua is worth attention because of the exceptionally good
keeping qualities of the grapes. The flavor i...
(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca)
Carman is a grape having the characters of three species and hence is
of interest to grape improve...
Arkansas, Catawba Tokay, Cherokee, Fancher, Keller's White, Lebanon,
Lincoln, Mammoth Catawba, Mead's Seedling...
Beaconsfield, Early Champion, Talman's Seedling
Champion is a favorite early grape with some growers, although the
| Chasselas Golden|
Chasselas Dore, Fontainebleau, Sweetwater
Several qualities have made Chasselas Golden a favorite grape wherever
| Chasselas Rose|
Chasselas Rose is very similar to Chasselas Golden, differing chiefly
in smaller bunch and berry and slightly different ...
In appearance of fruit, Chautauqua is very similar to Concord, its
parent, but the grapes ripen a few days earlier and a...
This variety has long been grown in New Jersey and New York, and in
both states is highly esteemed as a wine-gr...
Clinton (Plate X) came into prominence because of vigor, hardiness,
fruitfulness and immunity to...
This is one of the numerous white seedlings of Concord and one of the
few with sufficient merit to be kept in cultivatio...
| Columbian Imperial|
Columbian Imperial is a Labrusca-Vulpina hybrid chiefly remarkable for
the great size of it...
Concord (Plate XI) is the most widely known of the grapes of this
continent, and with its offspring, pure-bred and cross...
In vine and fruit, Cottage resembles its parent, Concord, having,
however, remarkably large, thick, leathery leaves. It ...
Bloom, Bloomburg, Catawissa, Columbia Bloom
Creveling was long a favorite black grape for the garden, where,...
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)
The fruit of Croton is a feast both to the eye and to the palate.
Unfortunately the vine is diff...
Long, Prince Edward
Cunningham is cultivated very little in America, but in France, at one
time, was one of the b...
Arkansas, Red River
There is controversy as to whether this variety differs from Norton.
The two ripen at...
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)
French Grape, Gray Delaware, Ladies' Choice, Powell, Ruff
Delaware (Plate VII) is used whereve...
Few other grapes surpass Diamond in quality and beauty of fruit. When
to its desirable fruit characters are ad...
Diana (Plate XII) is a seedling of Catawba to which its fruit bears
strong resemblance, differing chiefly in h...
(Vinifera, AEstivalis, Labrusca)
Downing is well worthy a place in the garden because of the high
quality, handsome appearance and ...
| Dracut Amber|
Dracut Amber is representative of the red type of Labrusca. The fruit
has no particular merit, its thick skin, coarse pu...
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana? AEstivalis?)
Dutchess (Plate XIII) is not grown largely in commercial vineyards
because of sever...
| Early Daisy|
The qualities of Early Daisy render the variety more than commonplace.
Its earliness commends it, the ripening period be...
| Early Ohio|
Early Ohio is remarkable, chiefly, in being one of the earliest
commercial grapes. The fruit resembles that of Concord, ...
| Early Victor|
Early Victor is highest in quality of early black grapes. It is
especially pleasing to those who object t...
Eaton (Plate XIV) is a pure-bred seedling of Concord which it
surpasses in appearance but does not equal in quality of f...
Eclipse (Plate XV) is a seedling of Niagara and, therefore, a
descendant of Concord which it resembles, differing chiefl...
Eden is of value as a general-purpose grape for the South and is
interesting as one of the few supposed...
The fruit of Eldorado is delicately flavored, with a distinct aroma
and taste and ripens about with that of ...
Although it has never attained popularity in the North, Elvira (Plate
XVI), after its introduction into Missour...
Emperor is one of the standard shipping grapes of the Pacific slope,
being one of the mainstays of the interior valleys....
| Empire State|
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)
Empire State (Plate XVII) competes with Niagara and Diamond for
supremacy among green grapes. The var...
In appearance, taste and texture of fruit, Etta is very similar to
Elvira, of which it is a seedling. The small...
(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis)
The good qualities of Eumelan are: vines above the average in vigor,
hardiness and p...
Although spoken of as a desirable grape in some regions, Faith is of
little value in most localities. The fruit...
| Feher Szagos|
This variety succeeds rather well at Geneva, New York, bearing fruits
of excellent quality. It has two defects, dull col...
| Fern Munson|
(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca)
Admirable, Fern, Hilgarde, Munson's No. 76
Fern Munson is a southern grape not adapted to northe...
| Flame Tokay|
This is the leading shipping grape of the Pacific slope where it is
everywhere grown under the name "Tokay," with severa...
Flowers is a late, dark-colored Rotundifolia very popular in the
Carolinas. The variety is noted for its vigorous an...
The berries and clusters of Gaertner are large and handsomely colored,
making a very showy grape. The plant is...
Geneva is surpassed by so many other grapes of its season in quality
that it has never become popular, althoug...
Of all Rogers' hybrids, Goethe shows Vinifera characters most,
resembling in appearance the White Malaga of Eu...
| Gold Coin|
In the South, where alone it thrives, Gold Coin is a handsome market
variety of very good quality. The vines...
| Green Early|
Green Early is a white grape coming in season with Winchell, which
surpasses it in most characters, quality in...
| Grein Golden|
Grein Golden is very similar to Riesling, but the vine is much
stronger in growth. For a variety of the Taylor ...
| Gros Colman|
Gros Colman has the reputation of being the handsomest black
table-grape grown. It is one of the favorite...
The vine of Hartford may be well characterized by its good qualities,
but the fruit is best described by its faults, bec...
In 1880, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded a certificate
of merit to Hayes for high quality in f...
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)
Headlight is more desirable for southern than for northern vineyards,
yet it is worthy of trial ...
Bottsi, Brown French, Dunn, Herbemont's Madeira, Hunt, Kay's
Seedling, McKee, Neal, Warren, Warrenton
In the Sout...
In all that constitutes a fine table-grape, Herbert (Plate XVIII) is
as near perfection as any American variet...
Hercules is characterized by very large berries, fruit handsomely
colored and cluster large and well-formed. T...
Hicks is a remarkably good grape and were it not that the fruit is
almost identical with that of Concord, ripening with ...
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)
The grapes of Hidalgo are rich, sweet, delicately flavored, and with
color, size and form of ber...
Few varieties of black grapes equal Highland in appearance and quality
of fruit. When given good care under fa...
Hopkins is named by grape-growers in the South Atlantic states as the
best early Rotundifolia grape. Its season in N...
Hosford is an offspring of Concord, differing from the parent chiefly
in the greater size of bunch and berry and in bein...
| Hybrid Franc|
Hybrid Franc is the best-known cross between Rupestris and Vinifera.
It is one of the few varieties used in E...
(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana)
Ideal is a handsome seedling of Delaware, from which it differs
chiefly in being larger in bunch...
In flavor, the fruit of Iona (Plate XIX) has a rare combination of
sweetness and acidity, pure, delicate and v...
Alexander, Black Cape, Christie's Improved Isabella, Conckling's
Wilding, Constantia, Dorchester, Gibb's Grape...
| Isabella Seedling|
Isabella Seedling is an early, vigorous, productive offspring of
Isabella. In fruit characters it greatly rese...
Israella came from C. W. Grant contemporaneously with Iona and was
heralded as the earliest good grape in cult...
Ives' Madeira, Ives' Seedling, Kittredge
Ives has a high reputation as a grape for making red wine, being
James is one of the largest of the Rotundifolia grapes and probably
the best general-purpose variety of this species...
Endowed with a constitution enabling it to withstand cold to which
most other grapes succumb, Janesville has ma...
Jefferson (Plate XXI) is an offspring of Concord crossed with Iona,
and resembles Concord in vigor, productive...
Jessica is an early, hardy, green grape. The fruit is sweet, rich,
sprightly and almost free from foxiness, bu...
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)
The notable characters of Jewel are earliness and high quality in
fruit; although, as compared w...
Kensington has several very meritorious fruit and vine characters. The
vine resembles that of Clinton, its Vulp...
King is similar to Concord, compared with which the vine is more
vigorous and prolific, time of ripening and length of s...
The vine of Lady is much like that of Concord, its parent, although
not quite so vigorous nor productive, but ...
| Lady Washington|
Lady Washington is in many respects a most excellent grape but falls
short in quality and does not excel in vi...
Alabama, Black El Paso, Black July, Black Spanish, Blue French,
Burgundy, Cigar Box Grape, Devereaux, Jack, Jacques,...
| Lignan Blanc|
White July, Luglienga, Joannenc
At Geneva, New York, Lignan Blanc ripens first of all grapes, native
or European. It ...
By common consent, Lindley (Plate XXII) is the best of the red grapes
originated by Rogers in his crosses betw...
In vigor, health, hardiness and productiveness, Lucile (Plate XXII) is
not surpassed by any native grape. Unfortunately,...
Lutie (Plate XXIII) is chiefly valuable for its vine characters. The
vines are vigorous, hardy, healthy and fruitful, al...
Malaga is one of the favorite table-grapes in California and also a
popular grape to ship to eastern markets. In some pa...
McPike is noteworthy because of the large size of the berries and
bunches. It is very similar to its parent, Worden, dif...
Black German, Marion Port
Marion so closely resembles Clinton in botanical and horticultural
characters as t...
Martha was at one time a popular green grape, but the introduction of
superior varieties has reduced its popul...
Massasoit is distinguished as the earliest of Rogers' hybrids,
ripening with Delaware. The grapes have the pec...
While at one time very popular, grape-growers now seldom hear of
Maxatawney. It is a southern grape, ripening ...
Memory is one of the best of the Rotundifolia grapes for the garden
and local markets, its fruits being especially g...
Merrimac is often accredited as the best black grape among Rogers'
hybrids, but an analysis of the characters ...
The bunches and berries of Mills are large and well-formed; the
berries are firm and solid, with the skin adhe...
Mish is a favorite Rotundifolia in North Carolina, being planted
extensively in some parts of that state. Its outsta...
Of all grapes, Mission has probably played the most important part in
the vineyards of California. Grown from the earlie...
| Missouri Riesling|
Missouri Riesling attains perfection only in the South. The vines are
hardy, vigorous, productive and healthy i...
Montefiore is extensively grown in Missouri and the Southwest but is
almost unknown in the North and East. It i...
| Moore Early|
Moore Early (Plate XXIV) is the standard grape of its season. Its
fruit cannot be described better than as an early Conc...
Moscatello Nero. Black Muscat
Beautiful in appearance and having a delicate Muscat taste and aroma,
this variety is o...
Jordan, Moyer's Early Red
Moyer is almost a counterpart of its parent, Delaware. Were it not
that the v...
This old and standard sort is rather commonly grown in some of the
grape regions of California to fo...
| Muscat Hamburg|
Muscat Hamburg (Plate XXV) is an old European grape well known in some
parts of America in greenhouse graperies, since i...
| Muscat Of Alexandria|
This is possibly the leading table- and raisin-grape of the Pacific
slope. From the literature or from a visit to vineyards, one canno...
Niagara (Plate XXVI) is the leading American green grape, holding the
rank among grapes of this color that Con...
Noah is little grown at present outside of Missouri, where it is still
planted somewhat. Noah and Elvira are of...
| Northern Muscadine|
That this variety, together with Lucile, Lutie and other grapes with
the foxy taste strongly marked, has not become popu...
Norton is one of the leading wine-grapes in eastern America, the fruit
having small value for any other purp...
Oporto was at one time in demand as a wine grape because its wine
resembled in color and flavor that from Oport...
(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca)
Arnold's Hybrid, Canadian Hamburg, Canadian Hybrid
In France, Othello does remarkably well as a dir...
Ozark belongs to the South and to Missouri in particular. Its merits
and demerits have been threshed out by ...
Golden Chasselas, Listan
This variety seems to be grown in California under the three names
given--while in France Pa...
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)
Peabody is as yet a comparatively unimportant offspring of Clinton.
The grapes are of excellent quali...
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)
Perfection is a seedling of Delaware, which it greatly resembles but
does not equal in fruit; it...
At one time Perkins was grown largely as an early grape but has been
discarded very generally on account of th...
Before the advent of Niagara, Pocklington (Plate XXII) was the leading
green grape. The variety has the fatal fault, how...
(Bourquiniana, Labrusca, Vinifera)
Poughkeepsie has been known long on the Hudson River, yet it is now
little grown there and has n...
Prentiss is a green grape of high quality, once well known and
generally recommended, but now going out of cul...
| Purple Cornichon|
By virtue of attractive appearance and excellent shipping qualities of
the fruit, this variety takes ...
In the middle of the last century, when grape-growing was in the hands
of the connoisseurs, Rebecca was one of...
| Red Eagle|
Red Eagle is a pure-bred seedling of Black Eagle which it resembles in
all characters except color of fruit. V...
Regal is an offspring of Lindley, which it greatly resembles. The
fruit is attractive in appearance and high i...
This is one of Rogers' hybrids which equals other grapes of its color
and season. The grapes are attractive in...
The fruit of Rochester is a large-clustered red grape, handsome and
very good in quality. The vine is a strong...
(Labrusca, Vulpina, Vinifera)
Rommel is rarely cultivated in the North, because the vines lack in
robustness, hardiness and product...
Rosaki is a table-and raisin-grape of southeastern Europe and Asia
Minor. According to some of the California nursery co...
| Rose Of Peru|
Rose of Peru is a favorite table-grape in California, confused with
and possibly the same as Black Prince. Its chief com...
Rogers' No. 22, Rogers' No. 53
Salem (Plate XXVII) is the one of Rogers' hybrids of which the
American Muscadine, Bull, Bullace, Bullet, Fox Grape, Green
Scuppernong, Green Muscadine, Hickman, Muscadine, Roanok...
(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca)
Injured by mildew and rot which attack leaves, fruit and young wood,
the vines of Secretary are able ...
The vine of Senasqua lacks in vigor, hardiness, productiveness and
health. The grapes are of good quality, and...
This variety was formerly the standard seedless grape in California
for home use and raisins, but it is now outstripped ...
Sultanina is one of the standard seedless grapes of the Pacific slope,
grown both to eat out of h...
While it is from the species to which Taylor belongs that we must look
for our hardiest vines, never...
When quality, color, shape and size of bunch and berry are considered,
Triumph (Plate XXVIII) is one of the fi...
The vines of Ulster set too much fruit in spite of efforts to control
the crop by pruning; two undesirable res...
Verdal is one of the standard late grapes of the Pacific slope,
ripening among the last. The grapes are...
The most valuable attribute of Vergennes (Plate XXIX) is certainty in
bearing. The vine seldom fails to bear although it...
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)
Were it not almost impossible to grow healthy vines of Walter, the
variety would rank high among...
The fruit of Wilder is surpassed in quality and appearance by other of
Rogers' hybrids, but the vine is the mo...
(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis)
The vines of Winchell (Plate XXX) are vigorous, hardy, healthy,
productive, and ...
Woodruff is a handsome, showy, brick-red grape with large clusters and
berries, but its taste belies its look...
Of the many offspring of Concord, Worden (Plate XXXI) is best known
and most meritorious. The grapes differ chiefly from...
Hopkins Early Red, Wilmington Red, Wyoming Red
Such value as Wyoming (Plate XXXII) possesses lies in the hardiness,
| On Waters|
Waters differ in their quality, that is to say, in extracting the
goodness from the Malt; it is, therefore, very necessary for every o...
| Some Observations On The Grinding Of Malt|
Much depends on the grinding of Malt. Many people give directions to
have their malt ground small, having an idea that the water will ...
| Improvements In The Mash Tun|
Mash Tuns should have false bottoms, to take up as occasion may
require;--they should be about two inches clear of the fixed bottom,
| Boiling Of The Worts|
Many brewers boil their worts from one to two hours; this is very much
practised in private families;--a great part of the time the wo...
| Cooling Of The Worts|
As soon as the wort is out of the copper the next thing is to get the
heat out as soon as possible, and to get it in a state for
| Attending The Working Tun|
Attention should be paid to the beer when in the tun. It is a custom
with many brewers to put their yeast for that brewing into the tu...
It is a practice with many people to keep their beer in the tun from
four to six days; by that time the yeast will fall to the bottom ...
| A Very Necessary Caution|
It is a common practice, when casks are scalded or cleansed, to expose
them to the sun and wind to dry, and there leave them till the ...
| Small Beer|
As I said before, small beer is too frequently neglected, because the
master or mistress of a family drink but a small quantity of it....
| Cleanliness In The Cellar|
Care should be taken to keep the cellar clean, (especially those who
are situated near the south aspect; or shallow, where the sun has...
| On The Drying And Qualities Of Malt|
I shall here give a few observations on malt, which was my principal
reason for introducing this work to the public, well knowing that...
| On Hops|
Many professed brewers are particularly attached to the colour of the
hops, that is, they are partial to those of a fine green colour;...