| Intelligence (157) |
Find articles on intelligence test theory
| Intelligence Tests Of Retarded School Children|
Numerous studies of the age-grade progress of school children have afforded
convincing evidence of the magnitude and seriousness of t...
| Intelligence Tests Of The Feeble-minded|
Thus far intelligence tests have found their chief application in the identification
and grading of the feeble-minded. Their value fo...
| Intelligence Tests Of Delinquents|
One of the most important facts brought to light by the use of intelligence
tests is the frequent association of delinquency and ment...
| Intelligence Tests Of Superior Children|
The number of children with very superior ability is approximately as great
as the number of feeble-minded. The future welfare of the...
| Intelligence Tests As A Basis For Grading|
Not only in the case of retarded or exceptionally bright children, but with
many others also, intelligence tests can aid in correctly...
| Intelligence Tests For Vocational Fitness|
The time is probably not far distant when intelligence tests will become a recognized
and widely used instrument for determining voca...
| Other Uses Of Intelligence Tests|
Another important use of intelligence tests is in the study of the factors
which influence mental development. It is desirable that w...
| Are Intelligence Tests Superfluous?|
Binet tells us that he often encountered the criticism that intelligence tests
are superfluous, and that in going to so much trouble ...
| The Necessity Of Standards|
In the first place, in order to judge an individual's intelligence it is necessary
to have in mind some standard as to what constitutes ...
| The Intelligence Of Retarded Children Usually Overestimated|
One of the most common errors made by the teacher is to overestimate the
intelligence of the over-age pupil. This is because she fails...
| Other Fallacies In The Estimation Of Intelligence|
Another source of error in the teacher's judgment comes from the difficulty in
distinguishing genuine dullness from the mental conditi...
| Binet's Questionnaire On Teachers' Methods Of Judging Intelligence|
Aroused by the skepticism so often shown toward his test method, Binet
decided to make a little study of the methods by which teachers...
| Binet's Experiment On How Teachers Test Intelligence|
Finally, Binet had three teachers come to his laboratory to judge the intelligence of
children whom they had never seen before. Each s...
| Essential Nature Of The Scale|
The Binet scale is made up of an extended series of tests in the nature of
"stunts," or problems, success in which demands the exerci...
| How The Scale Was Derived|
The tests were arranged in order of difficulty, as found by trying them upon some
200 normal children of different ages from 3 to 15 ...
| List Of Tests|
The following is the list of tests as arranged by Binet
in 1911, shortly before his untimely death:--
1. Points to no...
| How The Scale Is Used|
By means of the Binet tests we can judge the intelligence of a given individual by
comparison with standards of intellectual performa...
| Special Characteristics Of The Binet-simon Method|
Psychologists had experimented with intelligence tests for at least twenty years before
the Binet scale made its appearance. The quest...
| Binet's Conception Of General Intelligence|
In devising tests of intelligence it is, of course, necessary to be guided by some
assumption, or assumptions, regarding the nature of...
| Other Conceptions Of Intelligence|
It is interesting to compare Binet's conception of intelligence with the definitions
which have been offered by other psychologists. ...
| Guiding Principles In Choice And Arrangement Of Tests|
In choosing his tests Binet was guided by the conception of intelligence which we have
set forth above. Tests were devised which would...
| Some Avowed Limitations Of The Binet Tests|
The Binet tests have often been criticized for their unfitness to perform certain
services which in reality they were never meant to ...
| Nature Of The Stanford Revision And Extension|
Although the Binet scale quickly demonstrated its value as an instrument
for the classification of mentally-retarded and otherwise exc...
| Sources Of Data|
Our revision is the result of several years of work,
and involved the examination of approximately 2300 subjects, including
| Method Of Arriving At A Revision|
The revision of the scale below the 14-year level was based almost entirely on
the tests of the above-mentioned 1,000 unselected chil...
| Summary Of Changes|
A comparison of the above list with either the Binet 1908 or 1911 series will
reveal many changes. On the whole, it differs somewhat ...
| Effects Of The Revision On The Mental Ages Secured|
The most important effect of the revision is to reduce the mental ages secured in
the lower ranges of the scale, and to raise conside...
| The Distribution Of Intelligence|
The question as to the manner in which intelligence is distributed is one of
great practical as well as theoretical importance. One o...
| The Validity Of The Intelligence Quotient|
The facts presented above argue strongly for the validity of the I Q as an
expression of a child's intelligence status. This follows ...
| Sex Differences|
The question as to the relative intelligence of the
sexes is one of perennial interest and great social importance. The
|I Ntelligence Of The Different Social Classes|
Of the 1000 children, 492 were classified by their teachers according to
social class into the following five groups: _very inferior_, ...
| The Relation Of The I Q To The Quality Of The Child's School Work|
The school work of 504 children was graded by the teachers on a scale of
five grades: _very inferior_, _inferior_, _average_, _superio...
| The Relation Between I Q And Grade Progress|
This comparison, which was made for the entire 1000 children, showed a fairly
high correlation, but also some astonishing disagreemen...
| Correlation Between I Q And The Teachers' Estimates Of The Children's Intelligence|
By the Pearson formula the correlation found between the
I Q's and the teachers' rankings on a scale of five was .48. This is
| The Validity Of The Individual Tests|
The validity of each test was checked up by measuring it against the scale as
a whole in the manner described on p. 55. For example, ...
| Frequency Of Different Degrees Of Intelligence|
Before we can interpret the results of an examination it is necessary to know
how frequently an I Q of the size found occurs among un...
| Classification Of Intelligence Quotients|
What do the above I Q's imply in such terms as feeble-mindedness, border-line
intelligence, dullness, normality, superior intelligenc...
| Feeble-mindedness (rarely Above 75 I Q)|
There are innumerable grades of mental deficiency ranging from somewhat below
average intelligence to profound idiocy. In the literal...
| Border-line Cases (usually Between 70 And 80 I Q)|
The border-line cases are those which fall near the boundary generally recognized
as such and the higher group usually classed as nor...
| Dull Normals (i Q Usually 80 To 90)|
In this group are included those children who would not, according to any of the
commonly accepted social standards, be considered fe...
| Average Intelligence (i Q 90 To 110)|
It is often said that the schools are made for the average child, but that
"the average child does not exist." He does exist, and in ...
| Superior Intelligence (i Q 110 To 120)|
Children of this group ordinarily make higher marks and are capable of making
somewhat more rapid progress than the strictly average ...
| Very Superior Intelligence (i Q 120 To 140)|
Children of this group are better than somewhat above average. They are unusually
superior. Not more than 3 out of 100 go as high as ...
| Genius And Near Genius|
Intelligence tests have not been in use long enough to enable us to define genius
definitely in terms of I Q. The following two cases...
| Is The I Q Often Misleading?|
Do the cases described in this chapter give a reliable picture as to what one
may expect of the various I Q levels? Does the I Q furn...
| General Value Of The Method|
In a former chapter we have noted certain imperfections of the scale devised
by Binet and Simon; namely, that many of the tests were ...
| Dependence Of The Scale's Reliability On The Training Of The Examiner|
On this point two radically different opinions have been urged. On the
one hand, some have insisted that the results of a test made by...
| Influence Of The Subject's Attitude|
One continually meets such queries as, "How do you know the subject did his best?"
"Possibly the child was nervous or frightened," or...
| The Influence Of Coaching|
It might be supposed that after the intelligence scale had been used with a few
pupils in a given school all of their fellows would s...
| Reliability Of Repeated Tests|
Will the same tests give consistent results when used repeatedly with the same
subject? In general we may say that they do. Something...
| Influence Of Social And Educational Advantages|
The criticism has often been made that the responses to many of the tests are so
much subject to the influence of school and home env...
| Necessity Of Securing Attention And Effort|
The child's intelligence is to be judged by his success in the performance of
certain tasks. These tasks may appear to the examiner t...
| Quiet And Seclusion|
The tests should be conducted in a quiet room, located where the noises of
the street and other outside distractions cannot enter. A ...
| Presence Of Others|
A still more disturbing influence is the presence of
other persons. Generally speaking, if accurate results are to be secured
it is n...
| Getting Into Rapport|
The examiner's first task is to win the confidence of the child and overcome his
timidity. Unless _rapport_ has first been establishe...
| Keeping The Child Encouraged|
Nothing contributes more to a satisfactory _rapport_ than praise of the child's
efforts. Under no circumstances should the examiner p...
| The Importance Of Tact|
It goes without saying that children's personalities are not so uniform and
simple that we can adhere always to a single stereotyped ...
| Personality Of The Examiner|
Doubtless there are persons so lacking in personal adaptability that success in this
kind of work would be for them impossible. The w...
| The Avoidance Of Fatigue|
Against the validity of intelligence tests it is often argued that the result
of an examination depends a great deal on the time of d...
| Duration Of The Examination|
About the only danger of fatigue lies in making the examination too long.
Young children show symptoms of weariness much more quickly...
| Desirable Range Of Testing|
There are two considerations here of equal importance. It is necessary to make
the examination thorough, but in the pursuit of thorou...
| Order Of Giving The Tests|
The child's efforts in the tests are sometimes markedly influenced by the order
in which they are given. If language tests or memory ...
| Adhering To Formula|
It cannot be too strongly emphasized that unless we
follow a standardized procedure the tests lose their significance. The
danger is ...
The exact method of scoring the individual tests is set forth
in the following chapters. Reference to the record booklet for use in
| Recording Responses|
Plus and minus signs alone are not usually sufficient. Whenever possible the
entire response should be recorded. If the test results ...
| Scattering Of Successes|
It is sometimes a source of concern to the untrained examiner that the successes
and failures should be scattered over quite an exten...
| Supplementary Considerations|
It would be a mistake to suppose that any set of mental tests could be devised
which would give us complete information about a child...
| Alternative Tests|
The tests designated as "alternative tests" are not
intended for regular use. Inasmuch as they have been standardized and
belong in t...
| Finding Mental Age|
As there are six tests in each age group from III to X, each test in this part
of the scale counts 2 months toward mental age. There ...
| The Use Of The Intelligence Quotient|
As elsewhere explained, the mental age alone does not tell us what we want to know
about a child's intelligence status. The significa...
| How To Find The I Q Of Adult Subjects|
Native intelligence, in so far as it can be measured by tests now available, appears
to improve but little after the age of 15 or 16 ...
| Material For Use In Testing|
It is strongly recommended that in testing by the Stanford revision the regular
Stanford record booklets be used. These are so arrang...
| Pointing To Parts Of The Body|
PROCEDURE. After getting the child's attention, say: "_Show me your
nose._" "_Put your finger on your nose._" Same with eyes, mouth, a...
| Naming Familiar Objects|
PROCEDURE. Use a key, a penny, a closed knife, a watch, and an ordinary
lead pencil. The key should be the usual large-sized doorkey, ...
| Enumeration Of Objects In Pictures|
PROCEDURE. Use the three pictures designated as "Dutch Home," "River
Scene," and "Post-Office." Say, "_Now I am going to show you a pr...
| Giving Sex|
PROCEDURE. If the subject is a boy, the formula is: "_Are you a little
boy or a little girl?_" If a girl, "_Are you a little girl or a...
| Giving The Family Name|
PROCEDURE. The child is asked, "_What is your name?_" If the answer, as
often happens, includes only the first name (Walter, for examp...
| Repeating Six To Seven Syllables|
PROCEDURE. Begin by saying: "_Can you say 'mamma'? Now, say 'nice
kitty.'_" Then ask the child to say, "_I have a little dog._" Speak ...
| Alternative Test: Repeating Three Digits|
PROCEDURE. Use the following digits: 6-4-1, 3-5-2, 8-3-7. Begin with two
digits, as follows: "_Listen; say 4-2_." "_Now, say 6-4-1_." ...
| Comparison Of Lines|
PROCEDURE. Present the appropriate accompanying card with the lines in
horizontal position. Point to the lines and say: "_See these li...
| Discrimination Of Forms|
PROCEDURE. Use the forms supplied with this book. First, place the
circle of the duplicate set at "X", and say: "_Show me one like
| Counting Four Pennies|
PROCEDURE. Place four pennies in a horizontal row before the child. Say:
"_See these pennies. Count them and tell me how many there ar...
| Copying A Square|
PROCEDURE. Place before the child a cardboard on which is drawn in heavy
black lines a square about 11/4 inches on a side. Give the ch...
| Comprehension First Degree|
PROCEDURE. After getting the child's attention, say: "_What must you do
when you are sleepy?_" If necessary the question may be repeat...
| Repeating Four Digits|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_Now, listen. I am going to say over some numbers and
after I am through, I want you to say them exactly like I do. L...
| Alternative Test: Repeating Twelve To Thirteen Syllables|
The three sentences are:--
(a) "_The boy's name is John. He is a very good boy._"
(b) "_When the train passes you will hear the...
| Comparison Of Weights|
MATERIALS. It is necessary to have two weights, identical in shape,
size, and appearance, weighing respectively 3 and 15 grams. If...
| Naming Colors|
MATERIALS. Use saturated red, yellow, blue, and green papers, about
2 x 1 inch in size, pasted one half inch apart on white or gray
| Aesthetic Comparison|
Use the three pairs of faces supplied with the printed forms. It goes
without saying that improvised drawings may not be substituted f...
PROCEDURE. Use the words: _Chair_, _horse_, _fork_, _doll_, _pencil_,
and _table_. Say: "_You have seen a chair. You know what a chair...
| The Game Of Patience|
MATERIAL. Prepare two rectangular cards, each 2 x 3 inches, and divide
one of them into two triangles by cutting it along one of its d...
| Three Commissions|
PROCEDURE. After getting up from the chair and moving with the child to
the center of the room, say: "_Now, I want you to do something...
| Alternative Test: Giving Age|
PROCEDURE. The formula is simply, "_How old are you?_" The child of this
age is, of course, not expected to know the date of his birth...
| Distinguishing Right And Left|
PROCEDURE. Say to the child: "_Show me your right hand._" After this is
responded to, say: "_Show me your left ear._" Then: "_Show me ...
| Finding Omissions In Pictures|
PROCEDURE. Show the pictures to the child one at a time in the order in
which they are lettered, _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_. When the first pi...
| Counting Thirteen Pennies|
PROCEDURE. The procedure is the same as in the test of counting four
pennies (year IV, test 3). If the first response contains only a ...
| Comprehension Second Degree|
PROCEDURE. The questions used in this year are:--
(a) "_What's the thing to do if it is raining when you start to
| Naming Four Coins|
PROCEDURE. Show a nickel, a penny, a quarter, and a dime, asking each
time: "_What is that?_" If the child misunderstands and answers,...
| Repeating Sixteen To Eighteen Syllables|
The sentences are:--
(a) "_We are having a fine time. We found a little mouse in the
(b) "_Walter had a fine tim...
| Alternative Test: Forenoon And Afternoon|
PROCEDURE. If it is morning, ask: "_Is it morning or afternoon?_" If it
is afternoon, put the question in the reverse form, "_Is it af...
| Giving The Number Of Fingers|
PROCEDURE. "_How many fingers have you on one hand?_" "_How many on the
other hand?_" "_How many on both hands together?_" If the chil...
| Description Of Pictures|
PROCEDURE. Use the same pictures as in III, 3, presenting them always in
the following order: Dutch Home, River Scene, Post-Office. Th...
| Repeating Five Digits|
PROCEDURE. Use: 3-1-7-5-9; 4-2-3-8-5; 9-8-1-7-6. Tell the child to
listen and to say after you just what you say. Then read the first
| Tying A Bow-knot|
PROCEDURE. Prepare a shoestring tied in a bow-knot around a stick. The
knot should be an ordinary "double bow," with wings not over th...
| Giving Differences From Memory|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_What is the difference between a fly and a
butterfly?_" If the child does not seem to understand, say: "_You know
| Copying A Diamond|
PROCEDURE. On a white cardboard draw in heavy black lines a diamond with
the longer diagonal three inches and the shorter diagonal an ...
| Alternative Test 1: Naming The Days Of The Week|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_You know the days of the week, do you not? Name the
days of the week for me._" Sometimes the child begins by naming ...
| Alternative Test 2: Repeating Three Digits Reversed|
PROCEDURE. The digits used are: 2-8-3; 4-2-7; 5-9-6. The test should be
given after, but not immediately after, the tests of repeating...
| The Ball-and-field Test (score 2 Inferior Plan)|
PROCEDURE. Draw a circle about two and one half inches in diameter,
leaving a small gap in the side next the child. Say: "_Let us supp...
| Counting Backwards From 20 To 1|
PROCEDURE. Say to the child: "_You can count backwards, can you not? I
want you to count backwards for me from 20 to 1. Go ahead._" In...
| Comprehension Third Degree|
The questions for this year are:--
(a) "_What's the thing for you to do when you have broken
something which belongs to som...
| Giving Similarities; Two Things|
PROCEDURE. Say to the child: "_I am going to name two things which are
alike in some way, and I want you to tell me how they are alike...
| Giving Definitions Superior To Use|
PROCEDURE. The words for this year are _balloon_, _tiger_, _football_,
and _soldier_. Ask simply: "_What is a balloon?_" etc.
| Vocabulary; Twenty Definitions 3600 Words|
PROCEDURE. Use the list of words given in the record booklet. Say to the
child: "_I want to find out how many words you know. Listen; ...
| Alternative Test 1: Naming Six Coins|
PROCEDURE is exactly as in VI, 5 (naming four coins). The dollar should
be shown before the half-dollar.
SCORING. _All six coins mu...
| Alternative Test 2: Writing From Dictation|
PROCEDURE. Give the child pen, ink, and paper, place him in a
comfortable position for writing, and say: "_I want you to write
| Giving The Date|
PROCEDURE. Ask the following questions in order:--
(a) "_What day of the week is it to-day?_"
(b) "_What month is it?_"
| Arranging Five Weights|
Use the five weights, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 grams. Be sure that the
weights are identical in appearance. The weights may be made as
| Making Change|
PROCEDURE. Ask the following questions in the order here given:--
(a) "_If I were to buy 4 cents worth of candy and should give
| Repeating Four Digits Reversed|
The series are 6-5-2-8; 4-9-3-7; 3-6-2-9.
PROCEDURE AND SCORING. Exactly as in VII, alternate test 2.
| Using Three Words In A Sentence|
PROCEDURE The words used are:--
(a) _Boy_, _ball_, _river_.
(b) _Work_, _money_, _men_.
(c) _Desert_, _rivers_, _lakes_.
| Finding Rhymes|
PROCEDURE. Say to the child: "_You know what a rhyme is, of course. A
rhyme is a word that sounds like another word. Two words rhyme i...
| Alternative Test 1: Naming The Months|
PROCEDURE. Simply ask the subject to "_name all the months of the
year_." Do not start him off by naming one month; give no look of
| Alternative Test 2: Counting The Value Of Stamps|
PROCEDURE. Place before the subject a cardboard on which are pasted
three 1-cent and three 2-cent stamps arranged as follows: 111222. ...
| Detecting Absurdities|
PROCEDURE. Say to the child: "_I am going to read a sentence which has
something foolish in it, some nonsense. I want you to listen ca...
| Drawing Designs From Memory|
PROCEDURE. Use the designs shown on the accompanying printed form. If
copies are used they must be exact in size and shape. Before sho...
| Reading For Eight Memories|
MATERIAL. We use Binet's selection, slightly adapted, as follows:--
_New York, September 5th. A fire last night burned three hou...
| Comprehension Fourth Degree|
The questions for this year are:--
(a) "_What ought you to say when some one asks your opinion
about a person you don't kno...
| Naming Sixty Words|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_Now, I want to see how many different words you can
name in three minutes. When I say ready, you must begin and name...
| Alternative Test 1: Repeating Six Digits|
The digit series used are 3-7-4-8-5-9; and 5-2-1-7-4-6.
The PROCEDURE and SCORING are the same as in VII, 3, except that only
| Alternative Test 2: Repeating Twenty To Twenty-two Syllables|
The sentences for this year are:--
(a) "_The apple tree makes a cool, pleasant shade on the ground
where the children are p...
| Alternative Test 3: Construction Puzzle A (healy And Fernald)|
MATERIAL. Use the form-board pictured on page 279. This may be
purchased of C. H. Stoelting & Co., Chicago, Illinois. A home-made one
| Defining Abstract Words|
PROCEDURE. The words to be defined are _pity_, _revenge_, _charity_,
_envy_, and _justice_. The formula is, "_What is pity? What do we...
| The Ball-and-field Test (superior Plan)|
PROCEDURE, as in year VIII, test 1.
SCORING. Score 3 (or superior plan) is required for passing in
| Dissected Sentences|
The following disarranged sentences are used:--
FOR THE STARTED AN WE COUNTRY EARLY AT HOUR
TO ASKED PAPER MY TEACHER COR...
| Interpretation Of Fables (score 4)|
The following fables are used:--
(a) _Hercules and the Wagoner_
_A man was driving along a country road, when the wheels
| Repeating Five Digits Reversed|
The series are 3-1-8-7-9; 6-9-4-8-2; 5-2-9-6-1.
PROCEDURE and SCORING. Exactly as in years VII and IX.
| Interpretation Of Pictures|
PROCEDURE. Use the same pictures as in III, 1, and VII, 2, and the
additional picture _d_. Present in the same order. The formula to b...
| Giving Similarities Three Things|
PROCEDURE. The procedure is the same as in VIII, 4, but with the
(a) _Snake_, _cow_, _sparrow_.
| Induction Test: Finding A Rule|
PROCEDURE. Provide six sheets of thin blank paper, say 81/2 x 11 inches.
Take the first sheet, and telling the subject to watch what y...
| Giving Differences Between A President And A King|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_There are three main differences between a president
and a king; what are they?_" If the subject stops after one dif...
| Problem Questions|
PROCEDURE. Say to the subject: "_Listen, and see if you can understand
what I read._" Then read the following three problems, rather s...
| Arithmetical Reasoning|
PROCEDURE. The following problems, printed in clear type, are shown one
at a time to the subject, who reads each problem aloud and (wi...
| Reversing Hands Of Clock|
PROCEDURE. Say to the subject: "_Suppose it is six twenty-two o'clock,
that is, twenty-two minutes after six; can you see in your mind...
| Alternative Tests: Repeating Seven Digits|
This time, as in year X, only two series are given, one of which must be
repeated without error. The two series are: 2-1-8-3-4-3-9 and...
| Differences Between Abstract Terms|
PROCEDURE. Say: _What is the difference between_:--
(a) _Laziness and idleness?_
(b) _Evolution and revolution?_
| Problem Of The Enclosed Boxes|
PROCEDURE. Show the subject a cardboard box about one inch on a side.
Say: "_You see this box; it has two smaller boxes inside of it, ...
| Repeating Six Digits Reversed|
The series used are: 4-7-1-9-5-2; 5-8-3-2-9-4; and 7-5-2-6-3-8.
PROCEDURE and SCORING, as in year VII, alternative 2.
| Using A Code|
PROCEDURE. Show the subject the code given on the accompanying form.
Say: "_See these diagrams here. Look and you will see that they c...
| Average Adult Alternative Test 1: Repeating Twenty-eight Syllables|
The sentences for this test are:--
(a) _Walter likes very much to go on visits to his grandmother,
because she always tells...
| Average Adult Alternative Test 2: Comprehension Of Physical Relations|
(a) _Problem regarding the path of a cannon ball_
PROCEDURE. Draw on a piece of paper a horizontal line six or eight
| Superior Adult 1: Vocabulary (seventy-five Definitions 13500 Words)|
PROCEDURE and SCORING, as in previous vocabulary tests. At the "superior
adult" level seventy-five words should be known.
The test ...
| Superior Adult 2: Binet's Paper-cutting Test|
PROCEDURE. Take a piece of paper about six inches square and say:
"_Watch carefully what I do. See, I fold the paper this way_ (foldin...
| Superior Adult 3: Repeating Eight Digits|
PROCEDURE and SCORING, the same as in previous tests with digits
reversed. The series used are: 7-2-5-3-4-8-9-6; 4-9-8-5-3-7-6-2; and
| Superior Adult 4: Repeating Thought Of Passage|
PROCEDURE. Say: "_I am going to read a little selection of about six or
eight lines. When I am through I will ask you to repeat as muc...
| Superior Adult 5: Repeating Seven Digits Reversed|
PROCEDURE and SCORING, the same as in previous tests of this kind. The
series are: 4-1-6-2-5-9-3; 3-8-2-6-4-7-5; and 9-4-5-2-8-3-7.
| Superior Adult 6: Ingenuity Test|
PROCEDURE. Problem _a_ is stated as follows:--
_A mother sent her boy to the river and told him to bring back
exactly 7 pin...