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Home Gardening.ca

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Clovers

Introductory
In this book all the varieties of clover will be discussed that have hitherto been found of any considerable value to the agricultur...

Definition Of Clover
According to Johnson's Encyclopaedia, clover or trefoil is a plant of the genus Trifolium and the family Leguminosae. The Standard Di...

Varieties
At least twenty varieties, native or naturalized, are found in Great Britain; more than twelve varieties belong to the United States....

Distinguishing Characteristics
Clovers differ from one another in duration, habit of growth, persistence in growth, their power to endure low or warm temperatures, ...

Plan Of Discussion
Chapter I., that is, the present chapter, as already indicated, is introductory, and outlines the nature, scope and plan of the work....

Some General Principles Which Apply To The Growing Of Clovers
In growing clovers, as in growing other crops of the same species, which embrace several varieties, certain features of management w...

Adaptation In Clovers
Adaptation in the varieties of clover considered will be more fully given when discussing these individually, but enough will be said...

Place In The Rotation
All the varieties of clover discussed in this volume may be grown in certain rotations. Their adaptation for this use, however, diffe...

Fertilizers
On certain soils low in fertility and much deficient in humus, it may be necessary to apply fertilizers in some form before clovers w...

Seasons For Sowing
Clovers are more commonly sown in the springtime in the Northern States and Canada than at any other season and they are usually sown...

Methods Of Sowing
Clover seed may be sown by hand, by hand machines, and by the grain drill, with or without a grass-seed sowing attachment. These resp...

Depth To Bury The Seed
The depth to bury the seed varies with the conditions of soil, climate and season. Clover seeds, like those of grasses, are buried mo...

Sowing Alone Or In Combinations
Whether clover seed should be sown alone or in combination with the seeds of other grasses will depend upon the object sought in sowi...

Sowing With Or Without A Nurse Crop
Nearly all varieties of clover are usually sown with a nurse crop; that is, a crop which provides shade for the plants when they are ...

Amounts Of Seed To Sow
The amounts of clover seed to sow are influenced by the object sought in sowing; by combinations with which the seeds are sown, and b...

Pasturing
When clover seed is sown in nurse crops that are matured before being harvested, the pasturing of the stand secured the autumn follow...

Harvesting
All the varieties of clover, except alfalfa, are best cut for hay when in full bloom. Here and there a head may have turned brown. If...

Storing
Clovers are ready to store when enough moisture has left the stems to prevent excessive fermentation when put into the place of stora...

Feeding
The clovers furnish a ration more nearly in balance than almost any other kind of food. If the animals to which they are fed could co...

Renewing
Because of the comparatively short life of several of the most useful of the varieties of clover, no attempt is usually made to renew...

Clovers As Soil Improvers
All things considered, no class of plants grown upon the farm are so beneficent in the influence which they exert upon the land as cl...

Clover As A Weed Destroyer
Where clover is much grown, at least in some of its varieties, it becomes an aid in reducing the prevalence of many forms of weed gro...

Clover Sickness
On certain of the soils of Great Britain and probably on those of other countries in Europe, where clover has been grown quite freque...

Possible Improvement In Clovers
Some close observers have noticed that there is much lack of uniformity in the plants found growing in an ordinary field of clover, e...

Bacteria And Clovers
The fact has long been known, even as long ago as the days of Pliny, and probably much before those days, that clover, when grown in ...

Medium Red Clover
Medium Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is also known by the names Common Red Clover, Broad-Leaved Clover and Meadow Trefoil. The ter...

Distribution
Medium red clover is thought to be native to Europe. It was probably introduced into England some time early in the seventeenth centu...

Soils
Fortunately, this most useful plant will grow in a considerable variety of soils, though, of course, not equally well. Highest in gen...

Place In The Rotation
Medium red clover may be made to precede or to follow almost any crop that is grown upon the farm. Notwithstanding, there are certain...

Preparing The Soil
Speaking in a general way, it would be correct to say that it would not be easy to get soil in too friable a condition for the advant...

Sowing
The time for sowing clover seed is influenced considerably by the climatic conditions. Under some conditions it may be sown in the ea...

Pasturing
Medium red clover will furnish grazing very suitable for any kind of live stock kept upon the farm. All farm animals relish it, but n...

Harvesting For Hay
Medium red clover is at its best for cutting for hay when in full bloom, and when a few of the heads which first bloomed are beginnin...

Storing
Storing clover under cover is far preferable to putting it up in stacks, except in rainless climates. With the aid of the hay-loader ...

Securing Seed
As a rule, seed is not produced from the first cutting for the season of medium red clover. It is claimed that this is due to lack of...

Renewing
When clover is grown for hay, it is not usual to try to renew the crop, because of the short-lived period of the plant. But in some i...

Clover As A Fertilizer
It would probably be correct to say that no plant has yet been introduced into American agriculture that has been found so generally ...

Alfalfa
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) previous to its introduction into California, from Chili, about the middle of the last century, was usual...

Distribution
It is thought that alfalfa is more widely distributed over the earth's surface, furnishes more food for live stock, and has been wide...

Soils
It was formerly thought by many that alfalfa would only grow vigorously on soils and subsoils sandy in character, and underlaid at so...

Place In The Rotation
In a certain sense it can scarcely be said of alfalfa that it is a rotation plant, because of the long term of years for which it is ...

Preparing The Soil
In preparing the soil for alfalfa the aim should be to make a seed-bed clean, rich, fine, moist, even, and sufficiently firm or friab...

Sowing
The best season for sowing alfalfa will depend upon such conditions as relate to soil, moisture and climate. On rather stiff clay soi...

Cultivating
Under some conditions, it is, in a sense, necessary to sow alfalfa in rows, and to give it cultivation during the first season and so...

Pasturing
The practice of pasturing alfalfa the first season, especially where it cannot be irrigated, is usually condemned, lest it should wea...

As Soiling Food
For being fed as soiling food, alfalfa has the very highest adaptation, owing, 1. To the long period covered by the growth. 2. To the...

Harvesting For Hay
The best time to harvest alfalfa for hay is just after the blossoms begin to appear. Ordinarily, not more than one-third of the bloss...

Storing
When cured in cocks, these are preferably made small to facilitate quick curing, but usually from two to four days are necessary to c...

Securing Seed
Localities differ much in their capacity to produce alfalfa seed. The best crops of seed are now grown west and southwest of the Miss...

Renewing
Alfalfa may be renewed and also renovated where the stand secured at the first has been insufficient, where it may have been injured ...

Sources Of Injury To Alfalfa
Chief among the sources of injury to alfalfa, after the plants have become established, are frost in saturated ground, ice, floods, g...

Alfalfa As A Fertilizer
Alfalfa is not considered equal to medium red clover as a direct means of fertilizing and otherwise improving the land on which it gr...

Alsike Clover
Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum) takes its name from a parish in the south of Sweden. From there it is probable that it was introd...

Distribution
Alsike clover is found in Europe, Northern Africa and Western Asia. In these it has been cultivated for a long time, but its favorite...

Soils
The most suitable soil for alsike clover is a moist clay loam, not too friable nor too dense, and moist and deep. A goodly impregnatio...

Place In The Rotation
Much of what has been said about the place for medium red clover in the rotation may also apply to alsike clover. (See page 70.) On u...

Preparing The Soil
The preparation of the land for alsike clover on ordinary soils is the same as for medium red clover. (See page 74.) Usually, that de...

Sowing
The time at which alsike clover may best be sown is the same as that for sowing the medium red variety; that is to say, the early spr...

Pasturing
Alsike clover has by some authorities been assigned to a high place as a pasture plant. For such a use it has no little merit, but in...

Harvesting For Hay
Alsike clover is ready to harvest for hay when the plants are just beginning to pass beyond the meridian of full bloom. Some of the f...

Securing Seed
Alsike is a great producer of seed. This arises in part from the relatively large number of the heads on the plants, and in part from...

Mammoth Clover
Mammoth Clover (Trifolium magnum) was long ago named Trifolium medium by Linnaeus. However appropriate the designation may have been...

Distribution
Mammoth clover has long been grown in several of the countries of Europe and Western Asia. It is also grown in certain parts of Siber...

Soils
Mammoth clover may usually be successfully grown in soils well adapted to the growth of the medium red variety. (See page 65.) This m...

Place In The Rotation
The place for mammoth clover in the rotation is much the same as for the medium red variety. (See page 70.) It may, therefore, be bes...

Preparing The Soil
The preparation of the soil called for by the mammoth clover is virtually the same as that required when preparing a seed-bed for the...

Sowing
Much of what has been said about the sowing of medium red clover will apply also to the sowing of mammoth clover. East of the Mississ...

Pasturing
Mammoth clover furnishes much pasture when it is grazed, on into July and sometimes even into August, because of the vigorous charact...

Harvesting For Hay
Ordinarily, the methods of making the hay crop are the same as those followed in curing medium red clover. The mammoth variety, howev...

Securing Seed
It has been already intimated more seed will be obtained when the clover has been pastured or cut back with the mower. (See page 233....

Renewing
Much that has been said with reference to the renewing of medium red clover will apply equally to the renewing of the mammoth. (See p...

Crimson Clover
Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum) is also known by the names French, German, German Mammoth, Italian, Egyptian and Carnation clo...

Distribution
Crimson clover is probably indigenous to certain parts of Europe, especially to the countries that lie southwest and south. It has be...

Soils
Crimson clover though usually grown for the enrichment of soils will not, as a rule, make satisfactory growth on soils very low in th...

Place In The Rotation
It cannot be said of crimson clover, in the ordinary usage of the word, that it is a rotation plant. It has probably no fixed place i...

Preparing The Soil
In preparing the seed-bed for crimson clover, the aim should be to secure fineness of pulverization near the surface and moistness in...

Sowing
The date for sowing crimson clover would seem to depend more upon latitude than upon any other influence. North of the Ohio River it ...

Pasturing
Crimson clover may be pastured in the autumn or in the spring or at both seasons, either when sown alone, or in conjunction with some...

Harvesting For Hay
Crimson clover is ready to be cut for hay when coming into, and a little before it is in, fullest bloom. Some authorities claim that ...

Securing Seed
Crimson clover does not ripen quite so quickly after flowering as common red clover, owing, in part, at least, to the less intense ch...

Renewing
Since crimson clover is an annual, but little can be done in the sense of renewing it on the same land without breaking the ground. B...

Facts Regarding Crimson Clover
1. When crimson clover is sown so early in the season that it has at least three to four months in which to grow before winter sets i...

White Clover
White Clover (Trifolium repens) is also called Dutch, White Dutch, White Trefoil, Creeping Trifolium and Honeysuckle clover. The nam...

Distribution
White clover is certainly indigenous to Europe and to the Northern States, and probably Western Asia. It grows in every country in Eu...

Soils
Small white clover will grow on almost any kind of soil, but by no means equally well. Highest, probably, in adaptation, especially w...

Place In The Rotation
Since white clover is usually not sown for meadow, but is rather sown for pasture, it can scarcely be called a rotation plant in the ...

Preparing The Soil
The preparation of the soil for growing this plant is much the same as for growing other plants of the clover or grass family. Finene...

Sowing
White clover is sown by much the same methods as the medium red variety. (See page 75.) But it will stand more hardship than the othe...

Pasturing
White clover ranks next to blue grass as a pasture plant within the area of its adaptation (see page 261), when its productiveness, c...

Securing Seed
White clover is a great seed-producing plant. The season for bloom covers a period relatively long, and the number of blossoms produc...

Renewing
White clover is probably more easily renewed than any plant of the clover family. In fact, it seldom requires renewal in a pasture in...

For Lawns
No other plant of the clover family is so frequently sown when making lawns. For such a use it is not sown alone, but is always the c...

As A Honey Plant
White clover is proverbial for its ability to furnish honey. There is probably no single plant which furnishes more or better honey. ...

Japan Clover
Japan Clover (Lespedeza striata) was introduced from China or Japan, or from both countries, into South Carolina in 1849, under the ...

Distribution
Japan clover is said to be native to China and other countries in Eastern Asia. When introduced into Japan, the soil and climatic con...

Soils
Japan clover is adapted to a wide range of soils. There would seem to be a concensus of opinion in the Southern States that it will g...

Place In The Rotation
Japan clover can scarcely be classed as a rotation plant in the strict sense of the term, since it more frequently comes into the fie...

Preparing The Soil
While careful preparation of the land will result in more certain and uniform germination in the seed, and more rapid growth in the p...

Sowing
Japan clover is more commonly sown in the spring, but it is sometimes sown in the autumn. There is more or less of hazard in sowing i...

Pasturing
Japan clover is much used in providing grazing in the South. Some writers have spoken of it as being the most valuable grazing plant ...

Harvesting For Hay
Japan clover is a good hay plant when grown on strong soils. The quality is good also when grown under adverse conditions, but the qu...

Securing Seed
Japan clover is ready for being harvested when the major portion of the seeds are ripe. This is late in the season. The seed crop is ...

Renewing
Since Japan clover is an annual, it is not necessary to renew it, in the sense in which more long-lived clovers are renewed, as, for ...

Burr Clover
Burr Clover (Medicago maculata) is sometimes called Spotted Medick and sometimes California clover, also Yellow clover. The name bur...

Distribution
Burr clover is said to be native to Europe and North Africa, but not to North America, although it has shown high adaptation in adapt...

Soils
While burr clover will grow with more or less success on almost any kind of soil possessed of a reasonable amount of fertility and mo...

Place In The Rotation
Burr clover is grown more in the sense of a catch crop and for pasture than in that of a crop to be marketed directly. Since it is gr...

Preparing The Soil
Since burr clover has much power to re-seed the land without preparation, it is more commonly reproduced thus. But, as with all other...

Sowing
Usually, burr clover is allowed to re-seed itself after it has once become established in the soil. In this respect it is not unlike ...

Pasturing
Opinions differ as to the palatability of this grass. All are agreed that stock do not take kindly to it at first, but that they come...

Securing Seed
In the Gulf States the seed matures in April and May. The plants grow seed profusely. Sown in October, stock may usually be allowed f...

Renewing
Since this plant is an annual, it cannot be renewed in the sense in which renewal is possible with a perennial. But as has been shown...

As A Fertilizer
The growing of burr clover exercises a beneficial influence on the land. Its value for this purpose, since it can be grown as a catch...

Sweet Clover
Sweet clover is so named from the sweet odor which emanates from the living plants. It is of two species. These are designated, resp...

Distribution
Sweet clover is probably indigenous to the semi-arid regions of Asia. The name Bokhara would seem to indicate as much, but it is also...

Soils
But little can be gleaned from American sources on this subject. Notwithstanding, it may be said with safety that it has greater powe...

Place In The Rotation
Since sweet clover seed is more commonly scattered in byplaces, or is self-sown from plants that have run wild, it can scarcely be sa...

Preparing The Soil
Since sweet clover will grow on the firmest and most forbidding soils, even when self-sown, it would not seem necessary, ordinarily, ...

Pasturing
Because of the bitter aromatic principle which it contains, known as commarin, stock dislike it, especially at the first. And it is q...

Harvesting For Hay
Sweet clover is not a really good hay plant under any conditions, and if not cut until it becomes woody, is practically valueless for...

Securing Seed
Nearly all of the seed sown in this country is imported. The author has not been able to obtain information with reference to growing...

Renewing
In the sense of a pasture or hay crop, it would not seem necessary to try to renew this crop, because of the relatively low value whi...

Value For Bee Pasture
All authorities are agreed as to the high value of this plant as a honey producer. The claim has been made for it that for such a use...

Value As A Fertilizer
The high value of this plant as a fertilizer and soil improver cannot be questioned. But whether it should ever be sown for such a us...

Value On Alkali Soils
This plant has been grown to some extent to aid in removing alkali from soils superabundantly impregnated with the same. It will grow...

Miscellaneous Varieties Of Clover
In addition to the varieties of clover that have been discussed at some length in previous chapters are a number the value of which ...

Sainfoin
Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa) is a perennial, leguminous, clover-like forage plant of the bean family. The word Sainfoin is equivalent ...

Egyptian Clover
Egyptian clover (Trifolium Alexandrianum) is more commonly known in the Nile valley as Berseem. It is of at least three varieties. The...

Yellow Clover
Yellow clover (Medicago lupulina) is to be carefully distinguished from Hop clover (Medicago procumbens), which it resembles so closel...

Sand Lucerne
Sand Lucerne (Medicago media), sometimes designated Medicago falcata, is probably simply a variety of the common alfalfa (Medicago sa...

Japanese Clover
The United States Department of Agriculture has quite recently introduced a variety of clover known botanically as Lespedeza bicolor. ...

Florida Clover
Florida clover (Desmodium tortuosum) is sometimes grown both for hay and pasture, more especially in the Gulf States. It has been desi...

Buffalo Clover
Buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) is a native species procumbent in its habit of growth. The leaves are most abundant at the bas...

Seaside Clover
Seaside clover (Trifolium invulneratum) has rendered some service to agriculture in what is known as the Great Basin, which includes p...


Flowers

From Blue To Purple Flowers
"If blue is the favorite color of bees, and if bees have so much to do with the origin of flowers, how is it that there are so few bl...

Pickerel Weed
(Pontederia cordata) Pickerel-weed family Flowers - Bright purplish blue, including filaments, anthers, and style; crowded in a de...

Larger Blue Flag Blue Iris Fleurdelis Flowerdeluce
(Iris versicolor) Iris family Flowers - Several, 2 to 3 in. long, violet-blue variegated with yellow, green, or white, and purple ...

Pointed Blueeyed Grass Eyebright Blue Star
(Sisyrinchium angustifolium) Iris family Flowers - From blue to purple, with a yellow center; a Western variety, white; usually se...

Liverleaf Noble Liverwort Squirrel Cup
(Hepalica Hepatica; H. triloba of Gray) Crowfoot family Flowers - Blue, lavender, purple, pinkish, or white; occasionally, not alw...

Purple Virgin's Bower
(Atragene Americana) Crowfoot family Flowers - Showy, purplish blue, about 3 in. across; 4 sepals, broadly expanded, thin, translu...

Orpine Liveforever Midsummermen Livelong Puddingbag
...

Plant Garden Stonecrop Witches' Money
(Sedum Telephium) Orpine family Flowers - Dull purplish, very pale or bright reddish purple in close, round, terminal clusters, ea...

Wild Lupine Old Maid's Bonnets Wild Pea Sun Dial
(Lupinus perennis) Pea family Flowers - Vivid blue, very rarely pink or white, butterfly-shaped corolla consisting of standard, wi...

Violets
(Viola) Violet family Lacking perfume only to be a perfectly satisfying flower, the COMMON, PURPLE, MEADOW, or HOODED BLUE VIOLET ...

Sea Lavender Marsh Rosemary Cankerroot Inkroot
(Limonium Carolinianum; Statice Limonium of Gray) Plumbago family Flowers - Very tiny, pale, dull lavender, erect, set along upper...

Fringed Gentian
(Gentiana crinita) Gentian family Flowers - Deep, bright blue, rarely white, several or many, about 2 in. high, stiffly erect, and...

Wild Blue Phlox
(Phlox divaricata) Phlox family Flowers - Pale lilac blue, slightly fragrant, borne on sticky pedicels, in loose, spreading cluste...

Forgetmenot Mouseear Scorpion Grass Snake Grass Love Me
(Myosotis Palustris) Borage family Flowers - Pure blue, pinkish, or white, with yellow eye; flat, 5-lobed, borne in many-flowered,...

Bluethistle
(Echium vulgare) Borage family Flowers - Bright blue, afterward reddish purple, pink in the bud, numerous, clustered on short, 1-s...

Blue Vervain Wild Hyssop Simpler's Joy
(Verbena hastala) Vervain family Flowers - Very small, purplish blue, in numerous slender, erect, compact spikes. Calyx 5-toothed;...

Holyherb, Enchanter's Plant, Juno's Tears, Pigeongrass,
LIGHTNING PLANT, SIMPLER'S JOY, and so on through a long list of popular names for the most part testifying to the plant's virtue as a ...

Charlie
(Glecoma hederacea; Nepeta Glechoma of Gray) Mint family Flowers - Light bluish purple, dotted with small specks of reddish violet...

Selfheal Healall Blue Curls Heartoftheearth Brunella
(Prunella vulgaris) Mint family Flowers - Purple and violet, in dense spikes, somewhat resembling a clover head; from 1/2 to 1 in. lo...

Snake Berry Poisonflower Woody Nightshade
(Solanum Dulcamara) Potato family Flowers - Blue, purple, or, rarely, white with greenish spots on each lobe; about 1/2 in. broad,...

Maryland Figwort Bee Plant Knotted Figwort Healall Pilewort
(Scrophularia Marylandica; S. nodosa of Gray) Figwort family Flowers - Very small, dull green on outside; vivid, shining brownish ...

Hairy Beardtongue
(Pentstemon hirsutus; P. pubescens of Gray) Figwort family Flowers - Dull violet or lilac and white, about 1 in. long, borne in a ...

Blueeyed Mary Innocence Broadleaved Collinsia
(Collinsia verna) Figwort family Flowers - On slender, weak stalks; whorled in axils of upper leaves. Blue on lower lip of corolla...

Monkeyflower
(Minulus ringens) Figwort family Flowers - Purple, violet, or lilac, rarely whitish; about 1 in. long, solitary, borne on slender ...

American Brooklime
(Veronica Americana) Figwort family Flowers - Light blue to white, usually striped with deep blue or purple structure of flower si...

Common Speedwell Fluellin Paul's Betony Groundhele
(Veronica officinalis) Figwort family Flowers - Pale blue, very small, crowded on spike-like racemes from axils of leaves, often f...

Hairy Ruellia
(Ruellia ciliosa) Acanthus family Flowers - Pale violet blue, showy, about 2 in. long, solitary or clustered in the axils or at th...

Bluets Innocence Houstonia Quaker Ladies Quaker Bonnets
...

Venus' Pride
(Houstonia caerulea) Madder family Flowers - Very small, light to purplish blue or white, with yellow center, and borne at end of ...

Venus' Lookingglass Clasping Bellflower
(Legouzia perfoliata; Specularia perfoliata of Gray) Bellflower family Flowers - Violet blue, from 1/2 to 3/4 in. across; solitary ...

Great Lobelia Blue Cardinalflower
(Lobelia syphilitica) Bellflower family Flowers - Bright blue, touched with white, fading to pale blue, about 1 in. long, borne on...

Lobelia
(Lobelia inflata) Bellflower family Flowers - Pale blue or violet, small, borne at short intervals in spike-like leafy racemes. Ca...

Chicory Succory Blue Sailors Bunk
(Cichorium Intybus) Chicory family Flower-head - Bright, deep azure to gray blue, rarely pinkish or white, 1 to 1 1/2 in. broad, s...

Ironweed Flat Top
(Vernonia Noveboracensis) Thistle family. Flower-head - Composite of tubular florets only, intense reddish-purple thistle-like hea...

Button Snakeroot
(Lacinaria squarrosa; Liatris squarrosa of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Composite, about 1 in. long, bright purple or rose ...

Daisy Daisyleaved Fleabane
(Erigeron pulchellus; E. bellifolium of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Composite, daisy-like, 1 to 1/2 in. across; the outer ...

Thistles
(Carduus) Thistle family Is land fulfilling the primal curse because it brings forth thistles? So thinks the farmer, no doubt, but...

Magenta To Pink Flowers
"Botany is a sequel of murder and a chronicle of the dead." - ...

Julian Hawthorne.
"A plant is not to be studied as an absolutely dead thing, but rather as a sentient being.... To measure petals, to count stamens, to...

Clarence Moores Weed.
...

Magenta To Pink Flowers
...

Sessileleaved Twistedstalk
(Streptopus roseus) Lily-of-the-Valley family Flowers - Dull, purplish pink, 1/2 in. long or less, solitary, on threadlike, curved...

Arethusa Indian Pink
(Arethusa bulbosa) Orchid family Flowers - 1 to 2 in. long, bright purple pink, solitary, violet scented, rising from between a pai...

Calopogon Grass Pink
(Limodorum tuberosum; Calopogon pulchellus of Gray) Orchid family Flowers - Purplish pink, 1 in. long, 3 to 15 around a long, loos...

Soapwort Bouncing Bet Hedge Pink Bruisewort Old Maid's Pink
...

Fuller's Herb
(Saponaria officinalis) Pink family Flowers - Pink or whitish, fragrant, about 1 inch broad, loosely clustered at end of stem, als...

Deptford Pink
(Dianthus Armeria) Pink family Flowers - Pink, with whitish dots, small, borne in small clusters at end of stem. Calyx tubular, 5-...

Pink Or Pale Corydalis
(Capnoides sempervirens; Corydalis glauca of Gray) Poppy family Flowers - Pink, with yellow tip, about 1/2 in. long, a few borne ...

Hardhack Steeple Bush
(Spiraea tomentosa) Rose family Flowers - Pink or magenta, rarely white, very small, in dense, pyramidal clusters. Calyx of 5 sepa...

Purpleflowering Or Virginia Raspberry
(Rubus odoratus) Rose family Flowers - Royal purple or bluish pink, showy, fragrant, 1 to 2 in. broad, loosely clustered at top of...

Queenoftheprairie
(Ulmaria rubra; Spirea lobata of Gray) Rose family Flowers - Deep pink, like the peach blossom, fragrant, about 1/3 in. across, cl...

Wild Roses
(Rosa) Rose family Just as many members of the lily tribe show a preference for the rule of three in the arrangements of their flo...

Trailing Bush Clover
(Lespedeza procumbens) Pea family Flowers - Purplish pink or violet, veined, the butterfly-shaped ones having standard petal, wing...

Herb Robert Red Robin Red Shanks Dragon's Blood
(Geranium Robertianum) Geranium family Flowers - Purplish rose, about 1/2 in. across, borne chiefly in pairs on slender peduncles....

White Or True Wood~sorrel Allelula
(Oxalis acetosella) Wood-sorrel family Flowers - White or delicate pink, veined with deep pink, about 1/2 in. long. Five sepals; 5...

Violet Woodsorrel
(Oxalis violacea) Wood-sorrel family Flowers - Pinkish purple, lavender, or pale magenta; less than 1 in. long; borne on slender s...

Swamp Rosemallow Mallow Rose
(Hibiscus Moscheutos) Mallow family Flowers - Very large, clear rose pink, sometimes white, often with crimson center, 4 to 7 in. ...

Marsh St.john'swort
(Triadenum Virginicum; Elodea Virginica of Gray) St.-John's-wort family Flowers - Pale magenta, pink, or flesh color, about 1/2 in....

Blue Waxweed Clammy Cuphea Tarweed
(Parsonia petiolata; Cuphea viscosissima of Gray) Loosestrife family Flowers - Purplish pink, about 1/4 in. across, on short pedun...

Meadowbeauty Deer Grass
(Rhexia Virginica) Meadow-beauty family Flowers - Purplish pink, 1 to 1 1/2 in. across, pedicelled, clustered at top of stem. Caly...

Great Or Spiked Willowherb Fireweed
(Chamaenerion angustifolium; Epilobium angustifolium of Gray) Evening Primrose family Flowers - Magenta or pink, sometimes pale, or...

Bog Wintergreen
(Pyrola uliginosa; P. rotundifolia, var. uliginosa of Gray) Wintergreen family Flowers - Magenta pink, fragrant, about 1/2 in. acro...

Pipsissewa Prince's Pine
(Chimaphila umbellata) Wintergreen family Flowers - Flesh-colored, or pinkish, fragrant, waxy, usually with deep pink ring around ...

Rhodora
(Rhodora Canadensis; Rhododendron Rhodora of Gray) Heath family Flowers - Purplish pink, rose, or nearly white, 1 1/2 in. broad o...

Broadleaved Kalmia
(Kalmia latifolia) Heath family Flowers - Buds and new flowers bright rose pink, afterward fading white, and only lined with pink,...

Sheeplaurel, Lambkill, Wicky, Calfkill, Sheeppoison
NARROW-LEAVED LAUREL (K. angustifolia), and so on through a list of folk names testifying chiefly to the plant's wickedness in the past...

Trailing Arbutus Mayflower Ground Laurel
(Epigaea repens) Heath family Flowers - Pink, fading to nearly white, very fragrant about 1/2 in. across when expanded, few or man...

Shooting Star American Cowslip Pride Of Ohio
(Dodecatheon Meadia) Primrose family Flowers - Purplish pink or yellowish white, the cone tipped with yellow; few or numerous, han...

Bitterbloom Rosepink Squarestemmed Sabbatia Rosy Centaury
(Sabbatia angularis) Gentian family Flowers - Clear rose pink, with greenish star in center, rarely white, fragrant, 1 1/2 in. bro...

Spreading Dogbane Flytrap Dogbane Honeybloom Bitterroot
(Apocynum androsaemifolium) Dogbane family Flowers - Delicate pink, veined with a deeper shade, fragrant, bell-shaped, about 1/3 i...

Bellbind Lady's Nightcap
(Convolvulus sepium; Calystegia sepium of Gray) Morning-glory family Flowers - Light pink, with white stripes or all white, bel...

Ground Or Moss Pink
(Phlox subulata) Phlox family Flowers - Very numerous, small, deep purplish pink, lavender or rose, varying to white, with a darke...

Obedient Plant False Dragonhead Lion's Heart
(Physostegia Virginiana) Mint family Flowers - Pale magenta, purplish rose, or flesh-colored, often variegated with white, 1 in. l...

Motherwort
(Leonurus Cardiaca) Mint family. Flowers - Dull purple pink, pale purple, or white, small, clustered in axils of upper leaves. Cal...

Wild Bergamot
(Monarda fisiulosa) Mint family Flowers - Extremely variable, purplish, lavender, magenta, rose, pink, yellowish pink, or whitish,...

Snakehead Turtlehead Balmony Shellflower Codhead
(Chelone glabra) Figwort family Flowers - White tinged with pink, or all white, about 1 in. long, growing in a dense terminal clus...

Large Purple Gerardia
(Gerardia purpurea) Figwort family Flowers - Bright purplish pink, deep magenta, or pale to whitish, about 1 in. long and broad, g...

Twinflower Ground Vine
(Linnaea borealis) Honeysuckle family Flowers - Delicate pink or white tinged with rose, bell-shaped, about 1/2 in. long, fragrant...

Common Burdock Cocklebur Beggars Buttons Clotbur Cuckoo
...

Button
(Arctium minus; Lappa officinalis: var. minor of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Composite of tubular florets only, about 1/2 ...

White And Greenish Flowers
"The transition from wind-fertilization to insect-fertilization and the first traces of adaptation to insects, could only be due to t...

Waterplantain
(Alisma Plantago-aquatica) Water-plantain family Flowers - Very small and numerous, white, or pale pink, whorled in bracted cluste...

Broadleaved Arrowhead
(Sagittaria latifolia; S. variabilis of Gray) Water-plantain family Flowers - White, 1 to 1 1/2 in. wide, in 3-bracted whorls of 3...

Water Arum Marsh Calla
(Calla palustris) Arum family Flowers - Minute, greenish yellow, clustered on a cylinder-like, fleshy spadix about 1 in. long, par...

American White Hellebore Indian Poke Itchweed
(Veratrum viride) Bunch-flower family Flowers - Dingy, pale yellowish or whitish green, growing greener with age, 1 in. or less ac...

Star Of Bethlehem Ten O'clock
(Ornithogalum umbellatum) Lily family Flowers - Opening in the sunshine, white within, greenish on the outside, veined, borne on sl...

Stargrass Colicroot
(Aletris farinosa) Lily family Flowers - Small, oblong-tubular, pure white or yellowish, about 1/4 in. long, set obliquely in a lo...

Wild Spikenard False Solomon's Seal Solomon's Zigzag
(Vagnera racemosa; Smilacina racemosa of Gray) Lily-of-the-Valley family Flowers - White or greenish, small, slightly fragrant, in ...

Showy Lady's Slipper
(Cypripedium reginae; C. spectabile of Gray) Orchid family Flowers - Usually solitary, at summit of stem, white, or the inflated w...

Whitefringed Orchis
(Habenaria blephariglottis) Orchid family Flowers - Pure white, fragrant, borne on a spike from 3 to 6 in. long. Spur long, slende...

Lesser Rattlesnake Plantain [dwarf Rattlesnakeplantain]
(Peramium repens; Goodyera repens of Gray) Orchid family Flowers - Small, greenish white, the lip pocket-shaped, borne on one side...

Lizard's Tail [lizard'stail, Waterdragon]
(Saurus cernuus) Lizard's-tail family Flowers - Fragrant, very small, white, lacking a perianth, bracted, densely crowded on pedun...

Spring Beauty Claytonia
(Claytonia Virginica) Purslane family. Flowers - White veined with pink, or all pink, the veinings of deeper shade, on curving, sl...

Starry Campion
(Silene stellata) Pink family Flowers - White, about 1/2 in. broad or over, loosely clustered in a showy, pyramidal panicle. Calyx...

Pokeweed Scoke Pigeonberry Inkberry Garget
(Phytolacca decandra) Pokeweed family Flowers - White, with a green centre, pink-tinted outside, about 1/4 in. across, in bracted ...

Common Chickweed
(Aisine media; Stellaria media of Gray) Pink family Flowers - Small, white, on slender pedicels from leaf axils, also in terminal ...

Sweetscented White Water Lily Pond Lily Water Nymph Water
...

Cabbage [fragrant Waterlily]
(Castalia odorata; Nymphaea odorata of Gray) Water-lily family Flowers - Pure white or pink tinged, rarely deep pink, solitary, 3 ...

Sassafras Beavertree [sweetbay Magnolia]
(Magnolia Virginiana; M. glauca of Gray) Magnolia family Flowers - White, 2 to 3 in. across, globular, depressed, deliciously frag...

Goldthread Cankerroot [goldthread]
(Coptis trifolia) Crowfoot family [Buttercup family] Flowers - Small white, solitary, on a slender scape 3 to 6 in. high. Sepals 5...

White Baneberry
(Actaea alba) Crowfoot family Flowers - Small, white, in a terminal oblong raceme. Calyx of 3 to 5 petal-like, early-falling sepal...

Black Cohosh Black Snakeroot Tall Bugbane
(Cimicifuga racemosa) Crowfoot family [Buttercup family] Flowers - Fetid, feathery, white, in an elongated wand-like raceme, 6 in....

Wood Anemone Wind Flower
(Anemone quinquefolia) Crowfoot family Flowers - Solitary, about 1 in. broad, white or delicately tinted with blue or pink outside...

Virgin's Bower Virginia Clematis Traveller's Joy Old Man's
BEARD (Clematis Virginiana) Crowfoot family Flowers - White and greenish, about 1 in. across or less, in loose clusters from the ...

Tall Meadowrue
(Thalictrum polyganum; T. Cornuti of Gray) Crowfoot family Flowers - Greenish white, the calyx of 4 or 5 sepals, falling early; no...

Twinleaf Rheumatism Root
(Jeffersonia diphylla) Barberry family Flowers - White, 1 in. broad, solitary, on a naked scape about 7 in. high in flower, more t...

May Apple Hog Apple Mandrake Wild Lemon
(Podophyllum peltatum) Barberry family Flowers - White, solitary, large, unpleasantly scented, nodding from the fork between a pai...

Bloodroot Indian Paint Red Puccoon
(Sanguinaria Canadensis) Poppy family Flowers - Pure white, rarely pinkish, golden centered, 1 to 1 1/2 in. across, solitary, at e...

Dutchman's Breeches White Hearts Soldier's Cap Eardrops
(Bicuculla Cucullaria; Dicentra cucullaria of Gray) Poppy family Flowers - White, tipped with yellow, nodding in a 1-sided raceme....

Squirrel Corn
(Bicuculla Canadensis) Poppy family Flowers - Irregular, greenish white tinged with rose, slightly fragrant, heart-shaped, with 2 ...

Twoleaved Toothwort Crinkleroot
(Dentaria diphylla) Mustard family Flowers - White, about 1/2 in. across, in a terminal loose cluster, the formation of each simil...

Shepherd's Purse Mother's Heart
(Bursa Bursa-pastoris; Capsella Bursa-pastoris of Gray) Mustard family Flowers - Small, white, in a long loose raceme, followed by ...

Vernal Whitlowgrass
(Draba verna) Mustard family Flowers - Very small, white, distant, growing on numerous scapes 1 to 5 in. high; in formation each f...

Roundleaved Sundew Dewplant
(Drosera rotundifolia) Sundew family Flowers - Small, white, growing in a 1-sided, curved raceme of buds chiefly. Calyx usually 5-...

Early Saxifrage
(Saxifraga Virginiensis) Saxifrage family Flowers - White, small, numerous, perfect, spreading into a loose panicle. Calyx 5-lobed...

False Miterwort Coolwort Foamflower Nancyovertheground
(Tiarella cordifolia) Saxifrage family. Flowers - White, small, feathery, borne in a close raceme at the top of a scape 6 to 12 in...

Carolina Grass Of Parnassus
(Parnassia Caroliniana) Saxifrage family Flowers - Creamy white, delicately veined with greenish, solitary, 1 in. broad or over, a...

Ninebark
(Opulaster opulifolius; Spiraea opulifolia of Gray) Rose family Flowers - White or pink, small, in numerous rounded terminal clus...

Meadowsweet Quaker Lady Queenofthemeadow
(Spiraea salicifolia) Rose family Flowers - Small, white or flesh pink, clustered in dense pyramidal terminal panicles. Calyx 5 cl...

Wild Red Raspberry
(Rubus strigosus) Rose family Flowers - White, about 1/2 in. across, on slender, bristly pedicels, in a loose cluster. Calyx deepl...

High Bush Blackberry Bramble
(Rubus villosus) Rose family Flowers - White, 1 in. or less across, in terminal raceme-like clusters. Calyx deeply 5-parted, persis...

Creeping Dalibarda
(Dalibarda repens) Rose family Flowers - White, solitary, or 2 at end of a scape 2 to 5 in. high. Calyx deeply, unevenly 5 or 6 pa...

Virginia Strawberry
(Fragaria Virginiana) Rose family Flowers - White, loosely clustered at summit of an erect hairy scape usually shorter than the le...

White Avens
(Geum Canadense; G. album of Gray) Rose family Flowers - White or pale greenish yellow, about 1/2 in. across, loosely scattered in...

Red Chokeberry Dogberry Tree
(Aronia arbutifolia; Pyrus arbutifolia of Gray) Apple family Flowers - White or magenta tinged, 1/2 in. across or less, in termina...

Juneberry Serviceberry Maycherry
(Amelanchier Canadensis) Apple family Flowers - Pure white, over 1 in. across, on long, slender pedicels, in spreading or drooping...

Common Hawthorn: White Thorn Scarletfruited Thorn Red Haw
...

Mayflowers
(Cratoegus coccinea) Apple family Flowers - White, rarely pinkish, usually less than 1 in. across, numerous, in terminal corymbs. ...

Flowering Spurge
(Euphorbia corollata) Spurge family Flowers - (Apparently) white, small, borne in forked, long-stalked umbels, subtended by green ...

Staghorn Sumac Vinegar Tree
(Rhus hirta; R. typhina of Gray) Sumac family Flowers - Greenish or yellowish white, very small, usually 5-parted, and borne in de...

American Holly
(Ilex opaca) Holly family Flowers - Very small, greenish or yellowish white, from 3 to 10 staminate ones in a short cyme; fertile ...

Black Alder Winterberry Feverbush
(Ilex verticillata) Holly family Flowers - Small, greenish white, the staminate clusters 2 to 10 flowered the fertile ones 1 to 3 ...

Bittersweet Waxwork Stafftree
(Celastrus scandens) Staff-tree family Flowers - Small, greenish-white, 5-parted, some staminate, some pistillate only; in termina...

New Jersey Tea Wild Snowball Redroot
(Ceanothus Americanus) Buckthorn family Flowers - Small, white, on white pedicels, crowded in dense, oblong, terminal clusters. Ca...

White Violets
(Viola) Violet family Three small-flowered, white, purple-veined, and almost beardless species which prefer to dwell in moist mead...

Enchanter's Nightshade
(Circaea Lutetiana) Evening Primrose family Flowers - Very small, white, slender pedicelled, in terminal and lateral racemes. Caly...

American Spikenard Indian Root Spignet
(Aralia racemosa) Ginseng family Flowers - Greenish white, small, 5-parted, mostly imperfect, in a drooping compound raceme of rou...

Wild Carrot Queen Anne's Lace Bird'snest
(Daucus Carota) Carrot family Flowers - Small, of unequal sizes (polygamous), white, rarely pinkish gray, 5-parted, in a compound,...

Smoother Sweet Cicely
(Washingtonia longistylis; Osmorrhiza longistylis of Gray) Carrot family Flowers - Small, white, 5-parted; in few rayed, long-pedun...

Flowering Dogwood
(Cornus florida) Dogwood family Flowers - (Apparently) large, white or pinkish, the four conspicuous parts simulating petals, notc...

White Alder Sweet Pepperbush Alderleaved Clethra
(Clethra alnifolia) White Alder family Flowers - Very fragrant, white, about 1/3 in. across, borne in long, narrow, upright, clust...

Canker Lettuce
(Pyrola rolundifolia) Wintergreen family Flowers - Very fragrant, white, in a spike; 6 to 20, nodding from an erect, bracted scape...

Indian Pipe Iceplant Ghostflower Corpseplant
(Monotropa uniflora) Indian-pipe family Flowers - Solitary, smooth, waxy, white (rarely pink), oblong-bell shaped, nodding from th...

Labrador Tea
(Ledum Groenlandicum; L. latifolium of Gray) Heath family Flowers - White, 5-parted, 1/2 in. across or less, numerous, borne in te...

Wild Rosemary March Holy Rose Water Andromeda Moorwort
(Andromeda Polifolia) Heath family Flowers - White or pink-tinted, small, round, tubular, 5-toothed at the tip; drooping from curv...

Creeping Wintergreen Checkerberry Partridgeberry Mountain
TEA; GROUND TEA; DEER, BOX, or SPICE BERRY (Gaultheria procumbens) Heath family Flowers - White, small, usually solitary, nodding ...

Huckleberry]
(Gaylussacia resinosa) Huckleberry family Flowers - White and pink, pale or deep, small, cylindric, bell-shaped. 5-parted, borne i...

Creeping Snowberry
(Chiogenes hispidula) Huckleberry family Flowers - Very small, white, few, solitary, nodding on short, curved peduncles from the l...

Pyxie Flowering Moss Pinebarren Beauty
(Pyxidanthera barbulata) Diapensia family Flowers - Abundant, white, or sometimes pink, about 1/4 in. across, 5-parted, solitary, ...

Starflower Chickweedwintergreen Star Anemone
(Trientalis Americana) Primrose family Flowers - White, solitary, or a few rising on slender, wiry foot-stalks above a whorl of le...

Indian Hemp: Amyroot
(Apocynum cannabinum) Dogbane family Flowers - Greenish white, about 1/4 in. across, on short pedicels, in dense clusters at ends ...

Wild Potatovine Manoftheearth Mechameck
(Ipomoea pandurata) Morning-glory family Flowers - Funnel form, wide-spread, 2 to 3 in. long, pure white or pinkish purple inside ...

Virginia Waterleaf
(Hydrophyllum Virginicum) Waterleaf family Flowers - White or purplish tinged, in a single or forking cluster on a long peduncle. ...

Jimsonweed Jamestown Weed Thorn Apple Stramonium Devil's
...

Trumpet
(Datura stramonium) Potato family Flowers - Showy, large, about 4 in. high, solitary, erect, growing from the forks of branches. C...

Culver'sroot Culver's Physic
(Leptandra Virginica; Veronica Virginica of Gray) Figwort family Flowers - Small, white or rarely bluish, crowded in dense spike-lik...

Buttonbush Honeyballs Globeflower Buttonball Shrub
...

Riverbush
(Cephalanthus occidentalis) Madder family Flowers - Fragrant, white, small, tubular, hairy within, 4-parted, the long, yellow-tipp...

Partridge Vine Twinberry Mitchellavine Squawberry
(Mitchella repens) Madder family Flowers - Waxy, white (pink in bud), fragrant, growing in pairs at ends of the branches. Calyx us...

Cleavers Goosegrass Bedstraw
(Galium Aparine) Madder family Flowers - Small, white, 4-parted, inconspicuous, in clusters of 1 to 3 on peduncles from the axils ...

Clovergrass, Clingrascal, Scratchgrass, Wild Hedgeburs,
HAIRIF or AIRIF, STICK-A-BACK or STICKLE-BACK, GOSLING-GRASS or GOSLING-WEED, TURKEY-GRASS, PIGTAIL, GRIP or GRIP-GRASS, LOVEMAN, SWEET...

Hobblebush American Wayfaring Tree
(Viburnum alnifolium; V. lantanoides of Gray) Honeysuckle family Flowers - In loose, compound, flat, terminal clusters, 3 to 5 in....

Boneset Common Thoroughwort Agueweed Indian Sage
(Eupatorium perfoliatum) Thistle family Flower-heads - Composite, the numerous, small, dull, white heads of tubular florets only...

Daisy Fleabane Sweet Scabious
(Erigeron annus) Thistle family Flower-heads - Numerous, daisy-like, about 1/2 in. across; from 40 to 70 long, fine, white rays (o...

Moonshine Cottonweed Nonesopretty
(Anaphalis margaritacea; Antennaria margaritacea of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Numerous pearly-white scales of the invol...

Yarrow Milfoil Old Man's Pepper Nosebleed
(Achillea Millefolium) Thistle family Flower-heads - Grayish-white, rarely pinkish, in a hard, close, flat-topped, compound cluste...

Dogfennel
(Anthemis Cotula; Maruta Cotula of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Like smaller daisies, about 1 in. broad; 10 to 18 white, ...

Common Daisy Whiteweed White Or Oxeye Daisy Loveme,
...

Lovemenot
(Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum) Thistle family Flower-heads - Disk florets yellow, tubular, 4 or 5 toothed, containing stamens and ...

Yellow And Orange Flowers
"All variations which render the blossoms more attractive, either by scent, color, size of corolla, or quantity of nectar, make the i...

Yellow And Orange Flowers
...

Golden Club
(Orontium aquaticum) Arum family Flowers - Bright yellow, minute, perfect, crowded on a spadix (club) 1 to 2 in. long; the scape, ...

Perfoliate Bellwort Straw Bell
(Uvularia perfoliala) Bunch-flower family Flowers - Fragrant, pale yellow, about 1 in. long, drooping singly (rarely 2) from tips ...

Yellow Adder's Tongue Trout Lily Dogtooth "violet"
(Erythronium Americanum) Lily family Flower - Solitary, pale russet yellow, rarely tinged with purple, slightly fragrant, 1 to 2 i...

Yellow Clintonia
(Clintonia borealis) Lily-of-the-valley family Flowers - Straw color or greenish yellow, less than 1 in. long, 3 to 6 nodding on s...

Indian Cucumberroot
(Medeola Virginiana) Lily-of-the-valley family Flowers - Greenish yellow, on fine, curving footstalks, in a loose cluster above a c...

Carrionflower
(Smilax herbacea) Smilax family Flowers - Carrion-scented, yellowish-green, 15 to 80 small, 6-parted ones clustered in an umbel on...

Yellow Stargrass
(Hypoxis hirsuta; H. erecta of Gray) Amaryllis family Flowers - Bright yellow within, greenish and hairy outside, about 1/2 in. ac...

Blackberry Lily
(Gemmingia Ciminensis; Pardanthus Chinensis of Gray) Iris family Flowers - Deep orange color, speckled irregularly with crimson a...

Large Yellow Lady's Slipper Whippoorwill's Shoe Yellow Moccasin
...

Flower
(Cypripedium hirsutum; C. pubescens of Gray) Orchid family Flower - Solitary, large, showy, borne at the top of a leafy stem to 2 ...

Yellow Fringed Orchis
(Habenaria ciliaris) Orchid family Flowers - Bright yellow or orange, borne in a showy, closely set, oblong spike, 3 to 6 in. long...

Marsh Marigold Meadowgowan American Cowslip
(Caltha palustris) Crowfoot family' Flowers - Bright, shining yellow, 1 to 1 1/2 in. across, a few in terminal and axillary groups....

Common Meadow Buttercup Tall Crowfoot Kingcups Cuckoo Flower
...

Goldcups Butterflowers Blisterflowers
(Ranunculus acris) Crowfoot family Flowers - Bright, shining yellow, about 1 in. across, numerous, terminating long slender foot...

Barberry Pepperidgebush
(Berberis vulgaris) Barberry family Flowers - Yellow, small, odor disagreeable, 6-parted, borne in drooping, many-flowered racemes...

Spicebush Benjaminbush Wild Allspice Feverbush
(Benzoin Benzoin; Lindera Benzoin of Gray) Laurel family Flowers - Before the leaves, lemon yellow, fragrant, small, in clusters c...

Greater Celandine Swallowwort
(Chelidonium majus) Poppy family Flowers - Lustreless yellow, about 1/2 in. across, on slender pedicels, in a small umbel-like clu...

Golden Corydalis
(Capnoides aureum; Corydalis aurea of Gray) Poppy family Flowers - Bright yellow, about 1/2 in. long, with a spur half the length ...

Black Mustard
(Brassica nigra) Mustard family Flowers - Bright yellow, fading pale, 1/4 to 1/2 in. across, 4-parted, in elongated racemes; quick...

Witchhazel
(Hamamelis Virginiana) Witch-hazel family Flowers - Yellow, fringy, clustered in the axils of branches. Calyx 4-parted; 4 very nar...

Fivefinger Common Cinquefoil
(Potentilla Canadensis) Rose family Flowers - Yellow, 1/4 to 1/2 in. across, growing singly on long peduncles from the leaf axils....

Yellow Avens Field Avens
(Geum strictum) Rose family Flowers - Golden yellow, otherwise much resembling the lower growing white avens (q.v.). Preferred Ha...

Rattlebox
(Crotalaria sagittalis) Pea family Flowers - Yellow, 1/2 in. long or less, usually only 2 or 3 on a long peduncle. Calyx 5-toothed...

Yellow Sweet Clover Yellow Melilot
(Melilotus officinalis) Pea family Resembling the white sweet clover, except in color. (q.v.) YELLOW or HOP CLOVER (Trifoti...

Yellow Woodsorrel Lady's Sorrel
(Oxalis stricta) Wood-sorrel family Flowers - Golden, fragrant, in long peduncled, small, terminal groups. Calyx of 5 sepals; coro...

Jewelweed Spotted Touchmenot: Silver Cap Wild Balsam: Lady's
...

Eardrops Snap Weed Wild Lady's Slipper
(Impatiens biflora; I. fulva of Gray) Jewel-weed family Flowers - Orange yellow, spotted with reddish-brown, irregular, 1 in. long...

Velvet Leaf Indian Mallow American Jute
(Abutilon Abulilon; A. Avicennae of Gray) Mallow family Flowers - Deep yellow, 1/2 to 3/4 in. broad, 5-parted, regular, solitary o...

St. Andrew's Cross
(Ascyrum hypericoides; A. Crux-Andreae of Gray) St. John's-wort family Flowers - Yellow, 1/2 to 3/4 in. across, terminal and from ...

Common St. John'swort
(Hypericum perforatum) St. John's-wort family Flowers - Bright yellow, 1 in. across or less, several or many in terminal clusters....

Longbranched Frostweed Frostflower Frostwort Canadian
...

Rockrose
(Helianthemum Canadense) Rock-rose family Flowers - Solitary, or rarely 2; about 1 in. across, 5-parted, with showy yellow petals;...

Yellow Violets
(Viola) Violet family Fine hairs on the erect, leafy, usually single stem of the DOWNY YELLOW VIOLET (V. pubescens), whose dark ve...

Eastern Cactus Prickly Pear Indian Fig
(Opuntia Opuntia; 0. vulgaris of Gray) Cactus family Flowers -Yellow, sometimes reddish at center, 2 to 3 in. across, solitary, mo...

Eveningprimrose Night Willowherb
(Onagra biennis; Qenothera biennis of Gray) Evening-primrose family Flowers - Yellow, fragrant, opening at evening, 1 to 2 in. ac...

Wild Or Field Parsnip Madnep Tank
(Pastinaca sativa) Carrot family Flowers - Dull or greenish yellow, small, without involucre or involucels; borne in 7 to 15 rayed...

Butterflyweed Pleurisyroot Orangeroot Orange Milkweed
(Asclepias tuberosa) Milkweed family Flowers - Bright reddish orange, in many-flowered, terminal clusters, each flower similar in ...

Horsebalm Citronella Richweed Stoneroot Horseweed
(Collinsonia Canadensis) Mint family Flowers - Light yellowish, lemon-scented, about 1/2 in. long, mostly opposite, in numerous sp...

Virginia Ground Cherry
(Physalis Virginiana; P. Pennsylvanica of Gray) Potato family Flowers - Sulphur or greenish yellow, with 5 dark purplish dots, 1 i...

Moth Mullein
(Verbascum Blattaria) Figwort family Flowers - Yellow, or frequently white, 5-parted, about 1 in. broad, marked with brown; borne ...

Butterandeggs Yellow Toadflax Eggsandbacon Flaxweed
...

Brideweed
(Linaria Linaria; L. vulgaris of Gray) Figwort family Flowers - Light canary yellow and orange, 1 in. long or over, irregular, born...

Downy False Foxglove
(Dasystoma flava; Gerardia flava of Gray) Figwort family Flowers - Pale yellow, 1 1/2 to 2 in. long; in showy, terminal, leafy-bract...

Greater Bladderwort Hooded Watermilfoil Popweed
(Utricularia vulgaris) Bladderwort family Flowers - Yellow, about 1/2 in. across, 3 to 20 on short pedicels in a raceme at the top...

Honeysuckle
(Lonicera Caprifoliuin; L. grata of Gray) Honeysuckle family Flowers - White within, the tube pinkish, soon fading yellow, 1 to 1 ...

Bush Honeysuckle Gravelweed
(Diervilla Diervilla; D. trifida of Gray) Honeysuckle family Flowers - Yellow, small, fragrant, 1 to 5 (usually 3) together on a p...

Common Dandelion Blowball Lion'stooth Peasant's Clock
(Taraxacum Taraxacum; T. Densleonis of Gray) Chicory family Flower-head - Solitary, golden yellow, to 2 in. across, containing 150...

Field Sowthistle Milk Thistle
(Sonchus arvensis) Chicory family Flower-heads - Bright yellow, very showy, to 2 in. across, several or numerous, on rough peduncl...

Paintbrush
(Hieracium aurantiacum) Chicory family Flower-beads - Reddish orange; 1 in. across or less, the 5-toothed rays overlapping in seve...

Golden Aster
(Chrysopsis Mariana) Thistle family Plower-heads - Composite, yellow, 1 in. wide or less, a few corymbed flowers on glandular stal...

Goldenrods
(Solidago) Thistle family When these flowers transform whole acres into "fields of the cloth-of-gold," the slender wands swaying b...

Elecampane Horseheal Yellow Starwort
(Inula Helenium) Thistle family Flower-heads - Large, yellow, solitary or a few, 2 to 4 in. across; on long, stout peduncles; the ...

Cupplant Indiancup Ragged Cup Rosinplant
(Silphium perfoliatum) Thistle family Plower-heads - Yellow, nearly flat; 2 to 3 in. across; 20 to 30 narrow, pistillate ray flore...

False Sunflower Oxeye
(Heliopsis helianthoides; H. laevis of Gray) Thistle family Flower-heads - Entirely golden yellow, daisy-like, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 in. ...

Jerusalem Purple Coneflower
(Rudbeckia hirta) Thistle family Flower-heads - From 10 to 20 orange-yellow neutral rays around a conical, dark purplish-brown disk...

Jerusalem Artichoke, Earth Apple, Canada Potato, Girasole (h.
tuberosus), often called WILD SUNFLOWER, too, has an interesting history similar to the dark-centered, common garden sunflower's. In a ...

Lanceleaved Tickseed Golden Coreopsis
(Coreopsis lanceolata) Thistle family Flowers-heads - Showy, bright golden yellow, the 6 to io wedge-shaped, coarsely toothed ray ...

Beggarticks, Sticktight, Rayless Marigold, Beggarlice,
PITCHFORKS, or STICK-SEED (B. frondosa) sufficiently explains its justly defamed character in its popular names. Numerous dull, dark, t...

Sneezeweed Swamp Sunflower
(Helenium autumnale) Thistle family Flower-heads - Bright yellow, to 2 in. across, numerous, borne on long peduncles in corymb-lik...

Tansy Bitterbuttons
(Tanacetum vulgare) Thistle family Flower-heads - Small, round, of tubular florets only, packed within a depressed involucre, and ...

Golden Ragwort Groundsel Squawweed
(Senecio aureus) Thistle family Flower-heads - Golden yellow, about 3/4 in. across, borne on slender peduncles in a loose, leafles...

Red And Indefinites
"I want the inner meaning and the understanding of the wildflowers in the meadow. Why are they? What end? What purpose? The plant kno...

Jackinthepulpit Indian Turnip
(Arisaema triphyllum) Arum family Flowers - Minute, greenish yellow, clustered on the lower part of a smooth, club-shaped, slender...

Skunk Or Swamp Cabbage
(Spathyema fetida; Symplocarpus fetidus of Gray) Arum family Flowers - Minute, perfect, fetid; many scattered over a thick, rounde...

Large Coralroot
(Corallorhiza multiflora) Orchid family Flowers - Dull brownish purple, about 1/2 in. high; 10 to 30 borne in a raceme 2 to 8 in. ...

Adam And Eve Puttyroot
(Aplectrum spicatum; A. hyemale of Gray)) Orchid family Flowers - Dingy yellowish brown and purplish, about 1 in. long, each on a ...

Wild Ginger Canada Snakeroot Asarabacca
(Asarum Canadense) Birthwort family Flower - Solitary, dull purplish brown, creamy white within, about 1 in. broad when expanded, ...

Dutchman's Pipe Pipevine
(Aristolochia macrophylla; A. Sipho of Gray)) Flower - An inflated, curved, yellowish-green, veiny tube (calyx), pipe-shaped, excep...

Fire Pink Virginia Catchfly
(Silene Virginica) Pink family Flowers - Scarlet or crimson, 1 1/2 in. broad or less, a few on slender pedicels from the upper lea...

Wild Columbine
(Aquilegia Canadensis) Crowfoot family Flower - Red outside, yellow within, irregular, 1 to 2 in. long, solitary, nodding from a c...

Pitcherplant Sidesaddle Flower Huntsman's Cup Indian Dipper
(Sarracenea purpurea) Pitcher-plant family Flower - Deep reddish purple, sometimes partly greenish, pink, or red, 2 in. or more ac...

Groundnut
(Apios Apios; A. tuberosa of Gray) Pea family Flowers - Fragrant, chocolate brown and reddish purple, numerous, about 1/2 in. long...

Pine Sap False Beechdrops Yellow Bird'snest
(Hypopitis Hypopitis; Monolropa Hypopitis of Gray) Indian-pipe family Flowers - Tawny, yellow,ecru, brownish pink, reddish, or bri...

Chickweed Burnet Rose Shepherd's Clock
(Anagallis arvensis) Primrose family Flower - Variable, scarlet, deep salmon, copper red, flesh colored, or rarely white; usually ...

Hound's Tongue Gypsy Flower
(Cynoglossum officinale) Borage family Flowers - Dull purplish red, about 1/3 in. across, borne in a curved raceme or panicle that ...

Oswego Tea Bee Balm Indian's Plume Fragrant Balm Mountain
MINT (Monarda didyma) Mint family Flowers - Scarlet, clustered in a solitary, terminal, rounded head of dark-red calices, with le...

Scarlet Painted Cup Indian Paintbrush
(Castilleja coccinea) Figwort family Flowers - Greenish yellow, enclosed by broad, vermilion, 3-cleft floral bracts; borne in a te...

Wood Betony Lousewort Beefsteak Plant High Healall
{Pedicularis Canadensis) Figwort family Flowers - Greenish yellow and purplish red, in a short dense spike. Calyx oblique, tubular...

Beechdrops
(Septamnium Virginianum; Epifegus Virginiana of Gray) Broom-rape family Flowers - Small, dull purple and white, tawny, or brownish ...

Trumpetflower Trumpetcreeper
(Tecoma radicans) Trumpet-creeper family Flowers - Red and veined within, paler and inclined toward tawny without, trumpet-shaped,...

Cardinal Flower Red Lobelia
(Lobelia cardinalis) Bellflower family Flowers - Rich vermilion, very rarely rose or white, 1 to 1 1/2 in, long, numerous, growing...

Fragrant Flowers Or Leaves.
Baby's Breath. Large Purple-fringed Orchis. Smaller Purple-fringed Orchis. Hepatica (occasionally). Purple Marsh Clematis. English Vi...

Unpleasantly Scented
Purple Trillium. Black Cohosh. Mandrake. Jamestown Weed. Salt-marsh Fleabane. Camomile. Carrion-flower. Barberry. Skunk Cabbage. Houn...

Plants And Shrubs Conspicuous In Fruit
RED AND REDDISH: Nightshade. Twisted-stalk. American Cranberry. Marsh Calla. Wild Spikenard (pale red speckled berries). Two-leaved S...

Buchnera Viscosa Clammy Buchnera
Class and Order. Didynamia Angiospermia. Generic CharactThe Botanical Magazineer. ...

Disandra Prostrata Trailing Disandra
Class and Order. Heptandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. sub 7-parti...

Michauxia Campanuloides Rough-leav'd Michauxia
Class and Order. Octandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 16-partitus....

Erica Cerinthoides Honeywort-flower'd Heath
Class and Order. Octandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 4-phyllus. ...

Ipom&oeliga Coccinea Scarlet Ipom&oeliga
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. infundibuli...

Struthiola Erecta Smooth Struthiola
Class and Order. Tetrandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. nulla. ...

Lychnis Coronata Chinese Lychnis
Class and Order. Decandria Pentagynia. Generic Character. Cal. 1-phyllus, ...

Phylica Ericoides Heath-leav'd Phylica
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Perianthium 5-pa...

Lobelia Surinamensis Shrubby Lobelia
Class and Order. Syngenesia Monogamia. Generic Character. Cal. 5-fidus. ...

Arabis Alpina Alpine Wall-cress
Class and Order. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Generic Character. Glandulæ...

Helianthus Multiflorus Many-flowered Or Perennial Sun-flower
Class and Order. Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea. Generic Character. Recept....

Bellis Perennis Var Major Flore Pleno Great Double Daisy
Class and Order. Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. Generic Character. Recept....

Primula Acaulis Fl Pleno Carneo Double Lilac Primrose
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Involucr. umbell...

Plumbago Rosea Rose-coloured Leadwort
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Corolla infundib...

Fumaria Solida Solid-rooted Fumitory
Class and Order. Diadelphia Pentandria. Generic Character. Cal. diphyllus....

Fumaria Cava Hollow-rooted Fumitory
Class and Order. Diadelphia Hexandria. Generic Character. Cal. diphyllus. ...

Chironia Baccifera Berry-bearing Chironia
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. rotata. ...

Linum Arboreum Tree Flax
Class and Order. Pentandria Pentagynia. Generic Character. Cal. 5-phyllus....

Trollius Asiaticus Asiatic Globe-flower
Class and Order. Polyandria Polygynia. Generic Character. Cal. 0. Peta...

Verbascum Myconi Borage-leav'd Mullein
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Corolla rotata, ...

Oxalis Caprina Goat's-foot Wood Sorrel
Class and Order. Decandria Pentagynia. Generic Character. Cal. 5-phyllus. ...

Senecio Elegans Purple Groundsel Or Ragwort
Class and Order. Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. Generic Character. Recept....

Amaryllis Atamasco Atamasco Lily
Class and Order. Hexandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. hexapetaloid...

Pelargonium Tricolor Three-coloured Crane's-bill
Class and Order. Monadelphia Heptandria. Generic Character. Cal. 5-partitu...

Fagonia Cretica Cretian Fagonia
Class and Order. Decandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 5-phyllus. ...

Veronica Decussata Cross-leav'd Speedwell
Class and Order. Diandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. limbo 4-parti...

Argemone Mexicana Mexican Argemone Or Prickly Poppy
Class and Order. Polyandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. 6-petala. ...

Ipom&oeliga Quamoclit Winged Leav'd Ipom&oeliga
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Corolla infundib...

Teucrium Latifolium Broad-leav'd Shrubby Germander
Class and Order. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Generic Character. Cor. labium su...

Aquilegia Canadensis Canadian Columbine
Class and Order. Polyandria Pentagynia. Generic Character. Cal. 0. Pet...

Scabiosa Atropurpurea Sweet Scabious
Class and Order. Tetrandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. communis po...

Vinca Rosea Madagascar Periwinkle
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Contorta. Folliculi...

Cineraria Amelloides Blue-flowered Cineraria Or Cape Aster
Class and Order. Syngenesia Polygamia Superfloa. Generic Character. Recept....

Myrtus Tomentosa Woolly-leaved Myrtle
Class and Order. Icosandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 5-fidus, su...

Allium Descendens Purple-headed Garlick
Class and Order. Hexandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. 6-partita, p...

Buchnera Viscosa Clammy Buchnera
Class and Order. Didynamia Angiospermia. Generic CharactThe Botanical Magazineer. ...

Disandra Prostrata Trailing Disandra
Class and Order. Heptandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. sub 7-parti...

Michauxia Campanuloides Rough-leav'd Michauxia
Class and Order. Octandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 16-partitus....

Erica Cerinthoides Honeywort-flower'd Heath
Class and Order. Octandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cal. 4-phyllus. ...

Ipom&oeliga Coccinea Scarlet Ipom&oeliga
Class and Order. Pentandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. infundibuli...

Struthiola Erecta Smooth Struthiola
Class and Order. Tetrandria Monogynia. Generic Character. Cor. nulla. ...

Lychnis Coronata Chinese Lychnis
Class and Order. Decandria Pentagynia. Generic Character. Cal. 1-phyllus, ...


Gardening Articles

Introduction
Formerly it was the custom for gardeners to invest their labors and achievements with a mystery and secrecy which might well have discoura...

Why You Should Garden
There are more reasons to-day than ever before why the owner of a small place should have his, or her, own vegetable garden. The days of h...

Requisites Of The Home Vegetable Garden
In deciding upon the site for the home vegetable garden it is well to dispose once and for all of the old idea that the garden "patch" mus...

Exposure
But the thing of first importance to consider in picking out the spot that is to yield you happiness and delicious vegetables all summer, ...

The Soil
The chances are that you will not find a spot of ideal garden soil ready for use anywhere upon your place. But all except the very worst o...

Drainage
There is, however, one other thing you must look out for in selecting your garden site, and that is drainage. Dig down eight or twelve inc...

Soil Antecedents
There was a further reason for, mentioning that strip of onion ground. It is a very practical illustration of what last year's handling of...

Other Considerations
There are other things of minor importance but worth considering, such as the shape of your garden plot, for instance. The more nearly rec...

The Planting Plan
Having selected the garden spot, the next consideration, naturally, is what shall be planted in it. The old way was to get a few seed cata...

Check List
Jan. 1st--Send for catalogues. Make planting plan and table. Order seeds. Feb. 1st--Inside: cabbage, cauliflower, first sowing. Onions for...

Planting Table
DEPTH TO -DISTANCE APART- VEGETABLE PLANT[1] SOW--INs. SEEDS[2] ROWS ...

I. Crops Remaining Entire Season
Asparagus, seed April-May 1 2-4 in. 15 in. Asparagus, plants April 4 1 ft. 3 ft. Bean, p...

Planting Table
DEPTH TO -DISTANCE APART- VEGETABLE PLANT[1] SOW--INs. SEEDS[3] ROWS ...

Ii. Crops For Succession Plantings
Bean, dwarf May 5-Aug 15 2 2-4 in. 1-1/2-2 ft. Kohlrabi[4] April-July 1/2 - 1 6-12 in. 1-1/2-2 ...

Iii. Crops To Be Followed By Others
Beet, early April-June 2 3-4 in. 15 in. Broccoli, early[4] April 1/2-1 1-1/2 ft. 2 ft. Borecol...

Iv. Crops That May Follow Others
Beet, late July-August 2 3-4 in. 15 in. Borecole May-June[2] 1/2-1 2 ft. 2-1/2 ft. Bro...

Ii. Crops For Succession Plantings
|SEED FOR | | 50 FT. | VEGETABLE | ROW | VARIETIES ------------------+---------+-------...

Iii. Crops To Be Followed By Others
Beet, early | 1 oz. | Edmund's Early, Early Model Broccoli, early | 35 | Early White French Borecole | 25 | D...

Iv. Crops That May Follow Others
Beet, late | 1 oz. | Crimson Globe Borecole | 25 | Dwarf Scotch Curled Broccoli | 25 | Early White Fr...

Reference Notes From The Tables
1 In the vicinity of New York City. Each 100 miles north or south will make a difference of 5 to 7 days later or earlier. 2 This is for so...

Implements And Their Uses
It may seem to the reader that it is all very well to make a garden with a pencil, but that the work of transferring it to the soil must b...

For Fighting Plant Enemies
The devices and implements used for fighting plant enemies are of two sorts:--(1) those used to afford mechanical protection to the plants...

Manures And Fertilizers
To a very small extent garden vegetables get their food from the air. The amount obtained in this way however, is so infinitesimal that fr...

The Theory Of Manuring
The food of plants consists of chemical elements, or rather, of numerous substances which contain these elements in greater or less degree...

Various Manures
The terms "manure" and "fertilizer" are used somewhat ambiguously and interchangeably. Using the former term in a broad sense--as meaning ...

Value Of Green Manuring
Another source of organic manures, altogether too little appreciated, is what is termed "green manuring"--the plowing under of growing cro...

Chemical Fertilizers
I am half tempted to omit entirely any discussion of chemical fertilizers: to give a list of them, tell how to apply them, and let the why...

Various Fertilizers
What are termed the raw materials from which the universally known "mixed fertilizers" are made up, are organic or inorganic substances wh...

Mixed Fertilizers
Mixed fertilizers are of innumerable brands, and for sale everywhere. It is little use to pay attention to the claims made for them. Even ...

Home Mixing
If you look over the Experiment Station report mentioned above, you will notice that what are called "home mixtures" almost invariably sho...

Applying Manures
The matter of properly applying manure, even on the small garden, is also of importance. In amount, from fifteen to twenty-five cords, or ...

The Soil And Its Preparation
Having considered, as thoroughly as the limited space available permitted, the matter of plant foods, we must proceed to the equally impor...

Preparing The Soil
Unless your garden be a very small one indeed, it will pay to have it plowed rather than dug up by hand. If necessary, arrange the surroun...

Plowing
If the garden can be plowed in the fall, by all means have it done. If it is in sod, it must be done at that time if good results are to b...

Harrowing
That is the first step toward the preparation of a successful garden out of the way. Next comes the harrowing; if the soil after plowing i...

Fining.
This treatment will reduce to a minimum the labor of finally preparing the seed- or plant-bed with the iron rake (or, on large gardens, wi...

Starting The Plants
This beautifully prepared garden spot--or rather the plant food in it-- is to be transformed into good things for your table, through the ...

Preparing The Soil
All this may seem like a lot of trouble to go to for such a small thing as a packet of seed. In reality it is not nearly so much trouble a...

Sowing The Seed
Having now our frames provided and our soil composed properly and good strong tested seed on hand, we are prepared to go about the busines...

Vegetable Date To Sow Seed Will Best Temperature To
KEEP GERMINATE (ABOUT) (ABOUT) Beets Feb. 15-Apr. 1 5...

Starting Plants Outside
Much of the above is applicable also to the starting of plants out-of- doors, for second and for succession crops, such as celery and late...

Sowing And Planting
The importance of having good seeds has already been declared. They must not only grow, but grow into what we have bought them for--be tru...

When To Sow Outdoors
Sow from the end of March to the beginning of May, or when plum and peach trees bloom, the following: Beet Cabbage Carrot ...

Methods Of Planting
The seed-bed, as it is called, is the surface prepared to receive the seed, whether for a patch of radishes or an acre of onions. For crop...

Sowing The Seed
If one observes the suggestions as to temperature just given, and the following precautions in placing the seed within the soil, failure o...

Setting Out Plants
The reader has not forgotten, of course, that plants as well as seeds must go into the well managed garden. We have already mentioned the ...

The Cultivation Of Vegetables
Before taking up the garden vegetables individually, I shall outline the general practice of cultivation, which applies to all. The purpos...

Rotation Of Crops
There is another thing to be considered in making each vegetable do its best, and that is crop rotation, or the following of any vegetable...

The Vegetables And Their Special Needs
The garden vegetables may be considered in three groups, in each of which the various varieties are given somewhat similar treatment: the ...

Root Crops
Under the first section we will consider: Beet Carrot Kohlrabi Leek Onion Parsnip Potato Salsify ...

Leaf Crops
Under leaf crops are considered also those of which the stalk or the flower heads form the edible portion, such as celery and cauliflower....

The Fruit Crops
Under this heading are included: Bean, dwarf Bean, pole Corn Peas Cucumber Egg-plant Melon, musk Mel...

Best Varieties Of The Garden Vegetables
It is my purpose in this chapter to assist the gardener of limited experience to select varieties sure to give satisfaction. To the man or...

Insects And Diseases And Methods Of Fighting Them
I use the term "methods of fighting" rather than the more usual one, "remedies," because by both experience and study I am more and more c...

Plant Enemies
Insects Class Eating a Sucking ...

Remedies
Mechanical Number Covered boxes........... 1 Collars................. 2 ...

Mechanical Remedies
1.--_Covered boxes:_--These are usually made of half-inch stuff, about eight inches high and covered with mosquito netting, wire or "prote...

Destructive Remedies
4.--_Hand-picking_ is usually very effective, and if performed as follows, not very disagreeable: Fasten a small tin can securely to a woo...

Poisonous Remedies
12.--_Paris green:_--This is the standard remedy for eating-bugs and worms. With a modern dusting machine it can be put on dry, early in t...

Precautions
So much for what we can do in actual hand-to-hand, or rather hand-to- mouth, conflict with the enemy. Very few remedies have ever proved e...

Harvesting And Storing
It is a very common thing to allow the garden vegetables not used to rot on the ground, or in it. There is a great deal of unnecessary was...

The Varieties Of Pome And Stone Fruits
Many a home gardener who has succeeded well with vegetables is, for some reason or other, still fearsome about trying his hand at growing ...

Apples
Without any question, the apple is far and away the most valuable fruit, both because of its greater scope of usefulness and its longer se...

Peaches
Success with peaches also will depend largely upon getting varieties adapted to climate. The white-fleshed type is the hardiest and best f...

Cherries
Cherries have one advantage over the other fruits--they give quicker returns. But, as far as my experience goes, they are not as long-live...

Planting: Cultivation: Filler Crops
As the pedigree and the quality of the stock you plant will have a great deal to do with the success or failure of your adventure in orcha...

Planting
Planting can be done in either spring or fall. As a general rule, north of Philadelphia and St. Louis, spring planting will be best; south...

Setting
Standard apple trees, fully grown, will require thirty to forty-five feet of space between them each way. It takes, however, ten or twelve...

Cultivation
The home orchard, to give the very finest quality of fruit, must be given careful and thorough cultivation. In the case of scattered trees...

Pruning, Spraying, Harvesting
The day has gone, probably forever, when setting out fruit trees and giving them occasional cultivation, "plowing up the orchard" once in ...

Apple Enemies
The insects most commonly attacking the apple are the codlin-moth, tent-caterpillar, canker-worm and borer. The codlin-moth lays its eggs ...

Cherry Enemies
Sour cherries are more easily grown than the sweet varieties, and are less subject to the attacks of fruit enemies. Sweet cherries are tro...

Peach Enemies
Do not spray peaches. For the curculio, within a few days after the flowers are off, take a large sheet of some cheap material to use as a...

Pear Enemies
Pears are sometimes affected with a scab similar to the apple-scab, and this is combated by the same treatment--three sprayings with Borde...

Plum Enemies
Plums have many enemies but fortunately they can all be effectively checked. First is the curculio, to be treated as described above. For ...

Berries And Small Fruits
Besides the tree-fruits discussed in the preceding chapters, there is another class which should be represented in every home garden--the ...

Setting The Plants
In using the soil-rooted layers, it is generally more satisfactory to set them out in spring, as soon as the ground can be worked, althoug...

Methods Of Growing
I describe the three systems most valuable for the home garden: (1) the hill, (2) the matted row, and (3) the pot-layered. (1) In the hill...

Cultivation
Whatever system is used--and each has its advocates--the strawberry bed must be kept clean, and attention given to removing the surplus ru...

Mulching
After the ground freezes, and before severe cold sets in (about the 1st to the 15th of December) the bed should be given its winter mulch....

Insects And Disease
For white-grub and cut-worm see pages elsewhere in the text. For rust, which frequently injures the leaves so seriously as to cause practi...

Varieties
New strawberries are being introduced constantly; also, they vary greatly in their adaptation to locality. Therefore it is difficult to ad...

The Blackberry
The large-growing sorts are set as much as six by eight feet apart, though with careful staking and pruning they may be comfortably handle...

Blackberry Varieties
As with the other small fruits, so many varieties are being introduced that it is difficult to give a list of the best for home use. Any s...

The Dewberry
This is really a trailing blackberry and needs the same culture, except that the canes are naturally slender and trailing and therefore, f...

Raspberry
The black and the red types are distinct in flavor, and both should be grown. The blackcaps need more room, about three by six or seven fe...

Raspberry Enemies
The orange rust, which attacks the blackberry also, is a serious trouble. Pull up and burn all infested plants at once, as no good remedy ...

Raspberry Varieties
Of the blackcaps, Gregg, McCormick, Munger, Cumberland, Columbian, Palmer (very early), and Eureka (late), are all good sorts. Reds: Cuthb...

Currants
The currant and gooseberry are very similar in their cultural requirements. A deep, rich and moist soil is the best--approaching a clayey ...

Pruning Currants
Besides careful cultivation, to insure the best of fruit it is necessary to give some thought to the matter of pruning. The most convenien...

Enemies Of The Currant
The worst of these is the common currant-worm. When he appears, which will be indicated by holes eaten in the lower leaves early in spring...

Varieties Of Currants
Red Dutch, while older and smaller than some of the newer varieties, is hardier and not so likely to be hurt by the borer. London Market, ...

The Gooseberry
This is given practically the same treatment as the currant. It is even more important that it should be given the coolest, airiest, locat...

Gooseberry Enemies
The currant-worm attacks the gooseberry also, and is effectively handled by the arsenate of lead, Paris green or hellebore spraying, menti...

Gooseberry Varieties
Of the native gooseberries--which are the hardiest, Downing and Houghton's Seedling are most used. Industry is an English variety, doing w...

The Grape
No garden is so small that there cannot be found in it room for three or four grape-vines; no fruit is more certain, and few more deliciou...

Grape Pruning
As stated above, the vine is cut back, when planting, to three or four eyes. The subsequent pruning--and the reader must at once distingui...

A Calendar Of Operations
One of the greatest difficulties in gardening is to get things started ahead at the proper time, and yet upon the thoroughness with which ...

January
Probably one of the good resolutions made with the New Year was a better garden for the coming summer. The psychologists claim that the on...

February
_Hotbeds_. A little early for making them until after the 15th, but get all your material ready--manure, selected and stacked; lumber read...

August
Keep the garden clean from late weeds--especially purslane, the hot- weather weed pest, which should be always _removed_ from the garden a...

September
_Frames_. Set in lettuce started in August. Sow radishes and successive crop of lettuce. Cooler weather begins to tell on late- planted cr...

October
Get ready for winter. Blanch rest of endive. Bank celery, to be used before Christmas, where it is. Gather tomatoes, melons, etc., to keep...

November
_Frames_. Make deep hotbeds for winter lettuce and radishes. Construct frames for use next spring. See that vegetables in cellar, bins, an...

December
Cover celery stored last month, if trenched out-of-doors. Use only light, loose material at first, gradually covering for winter. Put mulc...

And Then
set about procuring manures of all kinds from every available source. Remember that anything _which will rot_ will add to the value of you...

Starting A New Gardening Era
First, you should know why a maritime Northwest raised-bed gardener named Steve Solomon became worried about his dependence on irrigation....

Gardening With Less Irrigation
Being a garden writer, I was on the receiving end of quite a bit of local lore. I had heard of someone growing unirrigated carrots on sand...

Predictably Rainless Summers
In the eastern United States, summertime rainfall can support gardens without irrigation but is just irregular enough to be worrisome. Wes...

Summertime Rainfall West Of The Cascades (in Inches)
Location April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Eureka, CA 3.0 2.1 0.7 0.1 0.3 0.7 3.2 Medford, OR 1.0 1.4 0.98 0.3 0.3 0.6 2.1 Eugene, OR 2....

Source: Van Der Leeden Et Al., _the Water Encyclopedia,_ 2nd
ed., (Chelsea, Mich.:Lewis Publishers, 1990). Defined scientifically, drought is not lack of rain. It is a dry soil condition in which pla...

Daily Maximum Temperature (f)
July/August Average Eureka, CA 61 Medford, OR 89 Eugene, OR 82 Astoria, OR 68 Olympia, WA 78 Seattle, WA 75 Bellingham, WA 74 Vancouver, B...

Source: The Water Encyclopedia.
The kind of vegetation growing on a particular plot and its density have even more to do with soil moisture loss than temperature or humid...

Evaporation From Reservoirs (inches Per Month)
Location April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct Seattle, WA 2.1 2.7 3.4 3.9 3.4 2.6 1.6 Baker, OR 2.5 3.4 4.4 6.9 7.3 4.9 2.9 Sacramento, CA 3...

Source: _the Water Encyclopedia_
From May through September during a normal year, a reservoir near Seattle loses about 16 inches of water by evaporation. The next chart sh...

During Entire Growing Season (in Inches)
Location Duration Amount Umatilla/Yakama Valley April-October 30 Willamette Valley May-September 16 Puget Sound May-September 14 Upper Rog...

Source: _the Water Encyclopedia_
In our region, gardens lose far more water than they get from rainfall during the summer growing season. At first glance, it seems impossi...

Plants Are Water
Like all other carbon-based life forms on earth, plants conduct their chemical processes in a water solution. Every substance that plants ...

How Soil Loses Water
Suppose we tilled a plot about April 1 and then measured soil moisture loss until October. Because plants growing around the edge might ex...

How Plants Obtain Water
Most gardeners know that plants acquire water and minerals through their root systems, and leave it at that. But the process is not quite ...

Lowered Plant Density: The Key To Water-wise Gardening
I always think my latest try at writing a near-perfect garden book is quite a bit better than the last. _Growing Vegetables West of the Ca...

Dealing With A Surprise Water Shortage
Suppose you are growing a conventional, irrigated garden and something unanticipated interrupts your ability to water. Perhaps you are hom...

Helping Plants To Need Less Irrigation
Dry though the maritime Northwest summer is, we enter the growing season with our full depth of soil at field capacity. Except on clayey s...

Building Bigger Root Systems
Without irrigation, most of the plant's water supply is obtained by expansion into new earth that hasn't been desiccated by other competin...

Evaluating Potential Rooting Ability
One of the most instructive things a water-wise gardener can do is to rent or borrow a hand-operated fence post auger and bore a 3-foot-de...

Eliminating Plowpan
Deep though the soil may be, any restriction of root expansion greatly limits the ability of plants to aggressively find water. A compacte...

Curing Clayey Soils
In humid climates like ours, sandy soils may seem very open and friable on the surface but frequently hold some unpleasant subsoil surpris...

Spotting A Likely Site
Observing the condition of wild plants can reveal a good site to garden without much irrigation. Where Himalaya or Evergreen blackberries ...

Using Humus To Increase Soil Moisture
Maintaining topsoil humus content in the 4 to 5 percent range is vital to plant health, vital to growing more nutritious food, and essenti...

Keeping The Subsoil Open With Green Manuring
When roots decay, fresh organic matter and large, long-lasting passageways can be left deep in the soil, allowing easier air movement and ...

Mulching
Gardening under a permanent thick mulch of crude organic matter is recommended by Ruth Stout (see the listing for her book in More Reading...

Windbreaks
Plants transpire more moisture when the sun shines, when temperatures are high, and when the wind blows; it is just like drying laundry. W...

Fertilizing, Fertigating And Foliar Spraying
In our heavily leached region almost no soil is naturally rich, while fertilizers, manures, and potent composts mainly improve the topsoil...

Increasing Soil Fertility Saves Water
Does crop growth equal water use? Most people would say this statement seems likely to be true. Actually, faster-growing crops use much le...

Early Spring: The Easiest Unwatered Garden
West of the Cascades, most crops started in February and March require no special handling when irrigation is scarce. These include peas, ...

Later In Spring: Sprouting Seeds Without Watering
For the first years that I experimented with dry gardening I went overboard and attempted to grow food as though I had no running water at...

Handmade Footprints
Sometimes I sow large brassicas and cucurbits in clumps above a fertilized, double-dug spot. First, in a space about 18 inches square, I d...

Summer: How To Fluid Drill Seeds
Soaking seeds before sowing is another water-wise technique, especially useful later in the season. At bedtime, place the seeds in a half-...

Establishing The Fall And Winter Garden
West of the Cascades, germinating fall and winter crops in the heat of summer is always difficult. Even when the entire garden is well wat...

Vegetables To Start In A Nursery Bed
Variety Sowing date Transplanting date Fall/winter lettuce mid-August early October Leeks early April July Overwintered onions early-mid A...

Vegetables That Must Be Heavily Irrigated
(These crops are not suitable for dry gardens.) Bulb Onions (for fall harvest) Celeriac Celery Chinese cabbage Lettuce (summer and fall) R...

First, A Word About Varieties
As recently as the 1930s, most American country folk still did not have running water. With water being hand-pumped and carried in buckets...

Seed Company Directory
Abundant Life See Foundation: P.O. Box 772, Port Townsend, WA 98368 _(ABL)_ Johnny's Selected Seeds: Foss Hill Road, Albion, Maine 04910 _...

Throughout The Growing Directions That Follow In This Chapter, The
reader will be referred to a specific company only for varieties that are not widely available. I have again come to appreciate the older ...

Plant Spacing: The Key To Water-wise Gardening
Reduced plant density is the essence of dry gardening. The recommended spacings in this section are those I have found workable at Elkton,...

When To Plant
If you've already been growing an irrigated year-round garden, this book's suggested planting dates may surprise you. And as with spacing,...

Arugula (rocket)
The tender, peppery little leaves make winter salads much more interesting. _Sowing date:_ I delay sowing until late August or early Septe...

Beans Of All Sorts
Heirloom pole beans once climbed over considerable competition while vigorously struggling for water, nutrition, and light. Modern bush va...

Beets
Beets will root far deeper and wider than most people realize--in uncompacted, nonacid soils. Double or triple dig the subsoil directly be...

Broccoli: Italian Style
Italian-style broccoli needs abundant moisture to be tender and make large flowers. Given enough elbow room, many varieties can endure lon...

Broccoli: Purple Sprouting And Other Overwintering Types
_Spacing:_ Grow like broccoli, 3 to 4 feet apart. _Sowing date:_ It is easiest to sow in April or early May, minimally fertigate a somewha...

Root System Vigor In The Cabbage Family
Wild cabbage is a weed and grows like one, able to successfully compete for water against grasses and other herbs. Remove all competitio...

Adapted To Dry Gardening Not Vigorous Enough
Kale Italian broccoli (some varieties) Brussels sprouts (late types) Cabbage (regular market types) Late savoy cabbage Brussels sprouts (e...

Cabbage
Forget those delicate, green supermarket cabbages unless you have unlimited amounts of water. But easiest-to-grow savoy types will do surp...

Carrots
Dry-gardening carrots requires patiently waiting until the weather stabilizes before tilling and sowing. To avoid even a little bit of soi...

Cauliflower
Ordinary varieties cannot forage for moisture. Worse, moisture stress at any time during the growth cycle prevents proper formation of cur...

Chard
This vegetable is basically a beet with succulent leaves and thick stalks instead of edible, sweet roots. It is just as drought tolerant a...

Corn
Broadcast complete organic fertilizer or strong compost shallowly over the corn patch till midwinter, or as early in spring as the earth c...

Successfully Starting Cucurbits From Seed
With cucurbits, germination depends on high-enough soil temperature and not too much moisture. Squash are the most chill and moisture tole...

Cucumbers
_Sowing date:_ About May 5 to 15 at Elkton. _Spacing:_ Most varieties usually run five about 3 feet from the hill. Space the hills about 5...

Eggplant
Grown without regular sprinkler irrigation, eggplant seems to get larger and yield sooner and more abundantly. I suspect this delicate and...

Endive
A biennial member of the chicory family, endive quickly puts down a deep taproot and is naturally able to grow through prolonged drought. ...

Herbs
Most perennial and biennial herbs are actually weeds and wild hillside shrubs from Mediterranean climates similar to that of Southern Cali...

Kale
Depending on the garden for a significant portion of my annual caloric intake has gradually refined my eating habits. Years ago I learned ...

Kohlrabi (giant)
Spring-sown market kohlrabi are usually harvested before hot weather makes them get woody. Irrigation is not required if they're given a l...

Leeks
Unwatered spring-sown bulbing onions are impossible. Leek is the only allium I know of that may grow steadily but slowly through severe dr...

Lettuce
Spring-sown lettuce will go to large sizes, remaining sweet and tender without irrigation if spaced 1 foot apart in a single row with 2 fe...

Water-wise Cucurbits
The root systems of this family are far more extensive than most people realize. Usually a taproot goes down several feet and then, soil c...

Melons
_Sowing date:_ As soon as they'll germinate outdoors: at Elkton, May 15 to June 1. Thin to a single plant per hill when there are about th...

Onions/scallions
The usual spring-sown, summer-grown bulb onions and scallions only work with abundant irrigation. But the water-short, water-wise gardener...

Parsley
_Sowing date:_ March. Parsley seed takes two to three weeks to germinate. _Spacing:_ Thin to 12 inches apart in a single row 4 feet wide. ...

Peas
This early crop matures without irrigation. Both pole and bush varieties are planted thickly in single rows about 4 feet apart. I always o...

Peppers
Pepper plants on raised beds spaced the usually recommended 16 to 24 inches apart undergo intense root competition even before their leave...

Potatoes
Humans domesticated potatoes in the cool, arid high plateaus of the Andes where annual rainfall averages 8 to 12 inches. The species finds...

Rutabagas
Rutabagas have wonderfully aggressive root systems and are capable of growing continuously through long, severe drought. But where I live,...

Sorrel
This weed-like, drought-tolerant salad green is little known and underappreciated. In summer the leaves get tough and strong flavored; if ...

Spinach
Spring spinach is remarkably more drought tolerant than it would appear from its delicate structure and the succulence of its leaves. A bo...

Squash, Winter And Summer
_Sowing date:_ Having warm-enough soil is everything. At Elkton I first attempt squash about April 15. In the Willamette, May 1 is usual. ...

Tomato
There's no point in elaborate methods--trellising, pruning, or training--with dry-gardened tomato vines. Their root systems must be allowe...

My Own Garden Plan
This chapter illustrates and explains my own dry garden. Any garden plan is a product of compromises and preferences; mine is not intended...

The Raised Bed
Crops demanding the most water are grown on the raised bed. These include a succession of lettuce plantings designed to fill the summer sa...

Row 1
The row's center is about 3 feet from the edge of the raised bed. In March I sow my very first salad greens down half this row--mostly ass...

Row 2: Semi-drought Tolerant Brassicas
Row 2 gets about half the irrigation of row 1 and about one-third as much as the raised bed, and so is wider, to give the roots more room....

Row 3: Kale
Row 3 grows 125 feet of various kales sown in April. There's just enough overspray to keep the plants from getting gnarly. I prefer kale t...

Row 4: Root Crops
Mostly carrots, a few beets. No irrigation, no fertigation, none needed. One hundred carrots weighing in at around 5 pounds each and 20-so...

Row 5: Dry-gardened Salads
This row holds a few crowns of French sorrel, a few feet of parsley. Over a dozen giant kohlrabi are spring sown, but over half the row gr...

Row 6: Peas, Overwintered Cauliflower, And All Solanaceae
Half the row grows early bush peas. Without overhead irrigation to bother them, unpicked pods form seed that sprouts excellently the next ...

Row 7: Water-demanding Brassicas
Moving away from irrigation on the other side of the raised bed, I grow a succession of hybrid broccoli varieties and late fall cauliflowe...

Row 8: The Trellis
Here I erect a 125-foot-long, 6-foot-tall net trellis for gourmet delicacies like pole peas and pole beans. The bean vines block almost al...

Row 9: Cucurbits
This row is so wide because here are grown all the spreading cucurbits. The pole beans in row 8 tend to prevent overspray; this dryness is...

Row 10: Unirrigated Potatoes
This single long row satisfies a potato-loving household all winter. The quality of these dry-gardened tubers is so high that my wife comp...

Chapter 7
The Backyard ...

Water-wise Gardener
I am an unusually fortunate gardener. After seven years of struggling on one of the poorest growing sites in this region we now live on 16...

Plant Life.
The fact that plants, in common with man and the lower animals, possess the phenomena of life and death, naturally suggested in prim...

Primitive And Savage Notions Respecting Plants
The descent of the human race from a tree--however whimsical such a notion may seem--was a belief once received as sober fact, and e...

Plantworship.
A form of religion which seems to have been widely-distributed amongst most races of mankind at a certain stage of their mental cult...

4889.
10. "Du Culte des Dieux Fetiches," p. 169. 11. "Primitive Belief," pp. 332-3. 12. Fergusson's "Tree and Serpent Worship," p. 16. ...

Lightning Plants.
Amongst the legends of the ancient world few subjects occupy a more prominent place than lightning, associated as it is with those m...

Plants In Witchcraft.
The vast proportions which the great witchcraft movement assumed in bygone years explains the magic properties which we find ascribe...

1870, 602.
22. "British Herbal." 23. See Folkard's "Plant-lore Legends and Lyrics," p. 380. 24. "Plant-lore Legends and Lyrics," p. 376. ...

Plants In Demonology.
The association of certain plants with the devil forms an extensive and important division in their folk-lore, and in many respects ...

Plants In Fairylore.
Many plants have gained a notoriety from their connection with fairyland, and although the belief in this romantic source of supers...

Lovecharms.
Plants have always been largely used for testing the fidelity of lovers, and at the present day are still extensively employed for t...

Dreamplants.
The importance attached to dreams in all primitive and savage culture accounts for the significance ascribed to certain plants found...

Plants And The Weather.
The influence of the weather on plants is an agricultural belief which is firmly credited by the modern husbandman. In many instance...

Plant Proverbs.
A host of curious proverbs have, from the earliest period, clustered round the vegetable world, most of which--gathered from experie...

Plants And Their Ceremonial Use.
In the earliest period of primitive society flowers seem to have been largely used for ceremonial purposes. Tracing their history do...

Plant Names.
The origin and history of plant names is a subject of some magnitude, and is one that has long engaged the attention of philologists...

Plant Language.
Plant language, as expressive of the various traits of human character, can boast of a world-wide and antique history. It is not sur...

Fabulous Plants.
The curious traditions of imaginary plants found amongst most nations have partly a purely mythological origin. Frequently, too, the...

Doctrine Of Signatures.
The old medical theory, which supposed that plants by their external character indicated the particular diseases for which Nature ha...

Plants And The Calendar.
A goodly array of plants have cast their attractions round the festivals of the year, giving an outward beauty to the ceremonies and...

Children's Rhymes And Games.
Children are more or less observers of nature, and frequently far more so than their elders. This, perhaps, is in a great measure to...

Sacred Plants.
Closely allied with plant-worship is the sacred and superstitious reverence which, from time immemorial, has been paid by various c...

Plant Superstitions.
The superstitious notions which, under one form or another, have clustered round the vegetable kingdom, hold a prominent place in th...

Plants In Folkmedicine.
From the earliest times plants have been most extensively used in the cure of disease, although in days of old it was not so much th...

Plants And Their Legendary History.
Many of the legends of the plant-world have been incidentally alluded to in the preceding pages. Whether we review their mythologica...

Location
This is the most important matter relating to a good lawn. In selecting a site upon which to build, not the least consideration should...

Soil
This is the mother of all vegetation. Nothing, not even grass, will flourish on a poor soil. The quality of the soil varies in differe...

Seed
Much difficulty is often experienced in obtaining a good mixture of grass seed for the lawn, and different mixtures are recommended an...

Soil For Potting
Good, fresh, rich soil, is an element that is indispensable to the growth of healthy, vigorous plants. A plant cannot be thrifty if ...

Artificial Fertilizers
This question is frequently asked! Do you recommend the use of artificial fertilizers for house plants, and does it benefit them? I i...

Selecting And Sowing Seeds
All individuals of the vegetable world are so created as to reproduce themselves from seed or its equivalent. Every plant that grows...

Making And Planting Flower-beds
People of the present day can scarcely be contented with tall, waving timothy in the front door-yard, and the rickety board-fence th...

Watering Plants
Probably the most important matter to be observed in growing house-plants is that of watering them. The cultivator should know just ...

Is Cold Water Injurious To Plants?
Those who study works on horticulture by different writers, will discover many opposing views in respect to the modes of caring for, a...

Atmosphere And Temperature
The proper regulation of the atmosphere as to moisture and temperature, is one of the most important points to be observed in cultiv...

Insects Upon Plants
The little green insects so frequently seen on house-plants, are called aphis (plural aphides), plant-lice, or green-fly. They feed up...

Wintering Plants In Cellars
Many plants, such as Agaves (Century Plants), Oleanders, large Cactuses, etc., that have grown too large to be accommodated in the s...

The Law Of Color In Flowers
The public are so often duped by a set of travelling frauds, who make it their business to represent themselves as being the sole pr...

The Relation Of Plants To Health
Plants at present are more generally cultivated in-doors than formerly, and they may be seen in almost every home. The cultivation o...

Layering
Layering is a simple method by which plants may be multiplied. Moss Roses, nearly all kinds of hardy vines, like the Wistaria, Clema...

Propagation Of Plants From Cuttings
In the propagation of plants from cuttings or otherwise, the amateur, with limited facilities, of course cannot compete with the tra...

Grafting
Grafting is a simple art, that both old and young should become acquainted with and be able to perform. In my garden there had stood...

Hanging Baskets
Hanging Baskets for plants are made of different materials, and in a great variety of forms. Some are made of wire, others of clay, ...

Directions For Filling Hanging Baskets
To fill a wire basket, first obtain some of the green moss to be found on the lower portion of the trunks of trees in almost any shady...

Wardian Cases
A Wardian Case consists of a base, which is generally an oblong box, covered with a square glass frame, under which certain plants can...

Aquatics Water Lilies
The native Water Lilies that abound in many of our lakes, ponds, and rivers, are more or less familiar to all. They grow up year aft...

Soil For Growing Aquatic Plants
The best soil for growing aquatics, is that obtained from the bed of a pond, or a slow, swampy stream, but when this is not readily ob...

Hardy Climbing Vines Ivies
Hardy Climbing Vines seem to be in large demand in different sections of the country, either for training upon trellises as single s...

Ivies Growing And Training
"A dainty plant is the Ivy green, That creepeth o'er ruins old."--Boz. The Ivy is one of the oldest and most venerable of all c...

Annual Flowering Plants Pansy Culture
Annuals flower the same season the seeds are sown, perfect their seeds, and then die. "There is," says James Vick, "No forgotten spo...

Pansy Culture
Pansies are old and popular favorites, they embrace varieties with variously-colored flowers, from almost jet black, to pure white and...

Fall Or Holland Bulbs
That class of bulbs known as Fall, or Holland Bulbs, includes Hyacinths, Crocuses, Jonquils, Tulips, Narcissuses, Snow-drops, and se...

Tropical Bulbs Tuberoses
Gladioluses, Tuberoses, Cannas, and Caladiums, come under this head, and are the best known of this class of bulbs. They are not har...

Tuberoses
No collection of garden flowers is complete without the Tuberose. For the spotless purity of its flowers, and for incomparable fragran...

C Roses Cultivation And Propagating
The Rose is preeminently the Queen of Flowers. It has no rival in the floral kingdom, and will always stand at the head in the catal...

Tea Roses
The Roses best adapted for in-door culture belong to the class known as Tea Roses; these are tender, of a bushy growth, and if properl...

Hybrid Perpetual And Moss Roses
Both of the above classes are entirely distinct from either the Tea, Noisette, or Bourbon Roses; they are entirely hardy, exceedingly ...

Moss Roses
Of this class we need not speak in detail to any who have ever seen its delicate moss-covered buds, and inhaled their delightful odor....

Propagating The Rose
The Rose is somewhat difficult to propagate from cuttings, and it takes from three to four weeks for them to root under the best condi...

Japan And Other Lilies Calla Lilies
If we call the rose the "Queen of Flowers," what royal title shall we bestow upon the beautiful Japan Lilies? We sometimes think it ...

The Calla Lily
The Calla Lily, or "The Lily of the Nile," is an old and popular favorite, and is found in window-garden collections everywhere. It is...

How To Prepare Callas For Winter Blooming
After three months of this rest; or about the first of October, we "dump" out the plant, shake off all the old soil from the bulb or b...

Geraniums The Best Twelve Sorts
There is no flower that can surpass the Geranium for profusion of bloom, brilliancy and variety of color, and general adaptability f...

Double Varieties
Madam Ballet, pure white; Jewel, dark crimson; Asa Gray, salmon, very free bloomer; Madam Lemoine, light pink, large trusses; Bishop W...

Single Varieties
New Life, variegated, crimson, and white; Gen. Grant, dazzling scarlet; Pauline Lucca, pure white, with pink-eye; Chief Justice, the d...

Azaleas How To Cultivate Them
Comparatively few of these charming plants are to be seen outside of green-houses and private conservatories, we know not for w...

Camellias Orange And Lemon Trees
Dear reader, did you ever see a large Camellia plant in full blossom? If you have not, I will risk my reputation by saying that all ...

Orange And Lemon Trees
Both Orange and Lemon trees can be easily raised by sowing the seeds in good, rich soil, and after the seedlings become of sufficient ...

Fuchsias Training And Management
We confess to have a special liking for the Fuchsias, and think no assortment of house plants is complete without one or two varieti...

Cactuses
For singularity and grotesqueness of form, as well as for the exceptional conditions under which they grow to the best advantage, no...

The Night-blooming Cereus
The Night-blooming Cereus is an interesting plant, and excites much admiration when in flower, as it blooms at night-time only, the fl...

Propagating Rex Begonias
Those Begonias, known as belonging to the Rex division, are very beautiful, and also very distinct in both leaf and flower from all ot...

Rockeries How To Make Them
Many have a taste for forming grotesque pieces of rock work, selecting therefor such oddly-shaped and variously-colored rocks as may...

How To Make A Rockery
Having selected a site in a partly shaded spot, we will then proceed to form a mound of earth which may be drawn to the spot for the p...

Budding
Budding as an art is simple, useful, and easily acquired by any one with a little practice. More can be learned practically about bu...

Top-budding Trees
The top-budding of fruit and ornamental trees is much practised now-a-days by orchardists and fruit-growers generally, and sometimes ...

Pruning
If we plant trees or shrubs upon our grounds with the hope of making them more attractive, and at the same time indulge in the commo...

Tree Roses
In planting tree roses received from the nursery or elsewhere, be sure and set them deep; the stem, for six or eight inches above the ...

The Lawn
If one has a fine lawn and desires to keep it so, he should never work upon or mow it when the turf is wet or soggy. The impression ma...

Lawn Vases
The earth in vases of plants that stand out in exposed places, will rapidly dry out; if shells or fine gravel is laid over the surface...

Planting Trees
The spring is preferable to the fall for setting out trees and shrubs of all kinds. In the Northern States they should be set out abou...

Botanical Names
All species of plants belong to some particular genus, and bear a botanical, as well as a common name, by which they are distinguished...

Frozen Plants
Tender plants that have become frozen, or but slightly touched by frost, can be saved, if taken before they commence to thaw out; spri...

Cutting Grass
It is so easy to mow the lawn with the light-running modern lawn-mower, that many fine lawns are injured by too frequent mowings. We s...

An Arch
A very simple thing sometimes will look the most attractive. By driving two limber poles into the ground by the side of each of two ga...

Bloom
When watering plants avoid wetting the foliage as much as possible, as they will not bloom as freely as if the leaves were dry. Gerani...

Mildew
Mildew is a microscopic fungus, that is parasitic upon cultivated plants. Roses, Bouvardias, and especially grape vines, are subject t...

Sentiment And Language Of Flowers
Amaranth Immortality. Amaryllis Beautiful, but timid. Aster, double Variety. ...

Light
In the first place, almost all plants, whether they flower or not, must have an abundance of light, and many require sunshine, especia...

Temperature
Next in importance to light, is the matter of temperature. The ordinary house plants, to be kept in health, require a temperature of s...

Moisture
It would seem, at first thought, that the proper condition of moisture could be furnished as easily in the house as anywhere. And so i...

Soils Manures And Fertilizers
The soil must furnish the whole foundation of plant life. For centuries those who have grown things have realized the vital importan...

Manures
Manure of some sort is essential to the growing of plants in pots or boxes, both because of the plant-food it adds to the soil, and be...

Fertilizers
There are many brands of mixed fertilizers prepared specially for use in the greenhouse or on plants in pots. There is a temptation to...

Starting Plants From Seed
One of the ways of getting a supply of plants for the house is to start them from seed. With a number of varieties, better specimens...

Starting Plants From Cuttings
While many plants are best started from seed, as described in the preceding chapter, there are many which cannot be so reproduced; ...

Transplanting Potting And Repotting
Directions have already been given for preparing the best soil for house plants. This soil, sifted through a coarse screen--say a on...

Potting
Cuttings and small plants are put into two-inch or "thumb" pots. Some of the larger growing geraniums or very sturdy plants require t...

Repotting
In the course of a week or two, if a plant is knocked out, the small white roots may be seen coming through the ball of earth and begi...

Management Of House Plants
There are some general rules that will apply to taking care of all plants in the house; then there are several groups, the different...

Flowering Plants
The very important question--"What plants shall be grown in the house?"--must be left for the individual to answer. In selecting a f...

Other Flowering Plants
Ageratum--Valuable for its bright blue flowers and dwarf growth, going in well with other plants. There is also a white variety. Make ...

Shrubs
The shrubs of dwarf habit available for growing inside in winter are numerous and valuable. They include a number of the most attrac...

Foliage Plants
The foliage plants depend very largely for their beauty upon making a rapid, unchecked growth and being given plenty of sunlight. In...

Vines
A number of the vines make very excellent house plants, though one seldom sees them. This seems rather strange when one takes into ...

Ferns
Ferns, although there are not many varieties of them available for culture indoors, are probably more universally used as house plan...

The Sword Ferns
The old widely popular sword fern was Nephrolepis exaltata, but the original form has been almost entirely replaced by new varieties ...

The Scott Fern
A well grown large Boston fern requires a good deal of room, and the long fronds--three feet or more in length--are apt to get damaged...

The Plumed Type
Another fern developed from the Boston is Whitmani, in which the fronds are not so long but the foliage is so finely divided that it ...

The Maidenhairs
Of the beautiful, but delicate, adiantums perhaps the one most frequently seen in the florist's window is A. Farleyense, with its dro...

The Spider Ferns
The name given Pteris ferns is descriptive of only part of them, as they vary greatly. They are commonly used in made up dishes, or wi...

Other Ferns
The Holly fern (Cyrtomium falcatum) is another very desirable house plant and has been a favorite for years. It has very dark green s...

Palms
The number of palms adapted to house culture is very limited but they comprise the most elegant of the decorative plants. Althoug...

The Best House Palms
Although the number of palms cultivated is very large, very few indeed--only about a dozen--will give satisfactory results in the hous...

The Feather Leaved Palms
Many of these are of more recent introduction than the old favorite fan palms, but they have won their way to a growing and deserved p...

Cacti
Personally I am not an enthusiast over cacti. While a cactus in bloom is a marvelous sight, so gorgeous in fact that it is almost un...

Bulbs
Bulbs furnish one of the most satisfactory classes of winter-blooming house plants, especially for city houses and apartments where ...

Veranda Boxes Window-boxes Vases And Hanging Baskets
Many of the plants ordinarily set outdoors in pots, or planted in the flower beds, could be much more effectively used in veranda bo...

House-plant Insects And Diseases
If the suggestions for taking proper care of plants, detailed in a former chapter, are carefully followed, and they are given plenty...

Plant Enemies
Aphis. Aphis or green plant louse is the most commonly encountered of all the insect pests. It used to be dreaded, but with modern met...

Diseases
There are but two plant diseases likely to attack plants in the house: fungus and mildew. The first seems to be a sort of decompositio...

Accessories
The following list of implements and materials is suggestive rather than imperative. While all these things are useful many successf...

For Mixing Soil
Spade. A good long-bladed sharp instrument should be procured, for use both in taking up plants and in cutting out sod, etc., for the ...

Soil Ingredients
A sufficient quantity of soil constituents should be kept on hand in barrels or covered boxes. Store where they will not dry out. R...

For Planting And Transplanting
Transplanting fork. This can be had in malleable iron for fifteen cents and as it is not submitted to hard strains, like a trowel, wil...

For Handling Plants
In addition to the above there are a number of other devices often convenient to use. Brackets, frequently make possible the accomm...

Its Opportunities
It cannot be said that America has yet reached the gardening age. There is no doubt, however, that the appreciation of flowers, and ...

The Coldframe And The Hotbed
The simplest form of home glass is the coldframe. The simplest hothouse is the manure heated coldframe or hotbed. The following d...

The Construction Of Conservatories And Small Greenhouses
Have you ever stepped from the chill and dreariness of a windy day, when it seems as if the very life of all things growing were shr...

Methods Of Heating
In the foregoing chapter on homemade greenhouses very brief reference was made to the various methods of heating. It will be well to...

Management
Experience only can teach the beginner just how to manage his vegetables and plants in this new winter garden. But at the outset he ...

Flowers
There are a number of greenhouse crops which are easily within the reach of the amateur who has at his disposal a small glass struct...

Violets
Requiring even less heat than the carnation is the old-time and all-time favorite, the violet. With no greenhouse at all, these can be...

Ferns
Many of the decorative ferns may also be grown to perfection in the small house, at a moderate temperature, fifty to sixty degrees, th...

Chrysanthemums
These are propagated by cuttings, which root very easily. I would suggest, however, dipping them first in a wash of one part Aphine to...

Roses
It is much more difficult to grow good roses than to grow either chrysanthemums or carnations. They are more particular as to soil and...

Vegetables
While tomatoes and cucumbers require a high temperature, lettuce may be grown easily all the year round. A good method is to grow th...

Vegetable And Bedding Plants For Spring
While it is true that there are many ways in which one may save money with a small greenhouse all through the year, the best chance ...

Vegetables
The dates for sowing are about as follows in the vicinity of New York. Allow about a week's difference for every hundred miles of lat...

Bedding Plants
Most of the plants used for flower gardens and lawn beds come under the three following classes: (1) Those grown from seed; (2) those ...

Plants From Cuttings
The method of choosing and rooting cuttings has been outlined in a previous chapter (see page 29). In greenhouse work the main differe...

Bulbous Bedding Plants
The bulbous plants are started directly in pots, or in flats and transferred to pots, as described in individual cases in the precedin...

The Lime In Soils
Limestone Land. Soil analyses are serviceable only within certain limits, and in the case of the normal soils that comprise the very...

Sour Soils
Loss of Lime. Nature made the value of land as a producer of food utterly dependent upon the activity of lime, and at the same time ...

Evidences Of Acidity
Character of Vegetation. The character of the original forests is determined much by the lime-content, and the practical man, when b...

Tests For Acidity
The Litmus Paper Test. A method of testing soils for acidity, which has been in use for many years, is the simple litmus paper metho...

Sources Of Lime
Nature's Provision. Soils are composed of pulverized stone and organic matter. Much of the original stone contained little lime, and...

Definitions
Technical Terms. The practical man uses a great number of technical terms in his own field of labor, and often fails to recognize th...

Ground Limestone
Variation in Quality. Limestones vary widely in purity. They were formed under water, and clay and sand were laid down with the lime...

Storing Lime In The Soil
Liberal Use of Limestone. Land never does its best when skimped in any way. As we raise the percentage of carbonate of lime in land ...

Fresh Burned Lime
An Old Practice. The beneficial effect of caustic lime on land is mentioned in some ancient writings. Burning and slaking afforded t...

Burning Lime
Methods of Burning. Limestone contains the calcium and magnesium that must be the chief source of supply of American soils, though m...

Lime Hydrate
Slaking Lime. The usual means of reducing fresh burned stone lime to a condition that makes even distribution upon land possible is ...

Other Forms Of Lime
Air-Slaked Lime. A pure limestone is a carbonate, and the chemical formula is CaCO3. When it is burned, the carbon dioxide (CO2) is ...

Magnesian Lime
Magnesium. As an element of plant food, magnesium is as essential as calcium. It leaches out of the soil less readily, and there may...

What Shall One Buy?
Relative Values. The relative strengths of the various materials containing lime may be known and yet doubt continue respecting the ...

Methods Of Application
A Controlling Principle. The chief purpose of liming land is to provide a base with which acid may combine, so that the soil may be ...

Amount Of Lime Per Acre
Soils Vary in Requirement. There is always the insistent question respecting the amount of lime that should be used on a particular ...

Special Crop Demands
Lime-Loving Crops. There are plants which are acid-resistant, giving a good return for fertilization and care when the soil is sour....

The Lawn: How To Make It And How To Take Care Of It
The owner of the average small home seldom goes to the expense of employing the professional gardener to do the work of lawn-making....

Planting The Lawn
When the lawn is made we begin to puzzle over the planting of trees and shrubbery. What shall we have? Where shall we have it?...

Shrubs
Every yard ought to have its quota of shrubs. They give to it a charm which nothing else in the plant-line can supply, because they ...

Vines
A home without vines is like a home without children--it lacks the very thing that ought to be there to make it most delightful and ...

The Hardy Border
The most satisfactory garden of flowering plants for small places, all things considered, is one composed of hardy herbaceous perenn...

The Garden Of Annuals
In preparing the garden for annuals, the first thing to do is to spade up the soil. This can be done shortly after the frost is out ...

The Bulb Garden
Every lover of flowers should have a garden of bulbs, for three reasons: First, they bloom so early in the season that one can have ...

The Rose: Its General Care And Culture
The owner of every garden tries to grow roses in it, but where one succeeds, ten fail. Perhaps I would be safe in saying that ninety...

The Rose As A Summer Bedder
The amateur gardener may enjoy Roses from June to November if he is willing to take a little trouble for them. Not, however, with th...

The Dahlia
Thirty or forty years ago the Dahlia was one of our popular flowers. That is, popular among those who aspired to "keep up with the t...

The Gladiolus
One of the most popular flowers of the day is the Gladiolus. All things considered, it is our best summer bloomer. Nothing in the fl...

Lilies
The Rose, like the Lily, is a general favorite. It has more than once disputed the claim of its rival to the title of Queen of Flowe...

Plants For Special Purposes
Amateur gardeners are always wanting plants for some special purpose, and, for their benefit, I propose to devote this chapter to "...

Arbors Summer-houses Pergolas And Other Garden Features
Few persons who daily pass attractive homes in the suburban districts of our large cities and the outlying country, realize that muc...

Carpet-bedding
Carpet-Bedding is not the most artistic phase of gardening, by any means, but it has a great attraction for many persons who admire ...

Flowering And Foliage Plants For Edging Beds And Walks
We do not lay as much stress on edging beds and walks with flowering plants as formerly, but the practice is a most pleasing one, an...

Planning The Garden
The flower garden not being one of the necessities of life, in the usual sense of the term, people are likely to consider the making...

The Back-yard Garden
A great deal is written about the flower-garden that fronts the street, or is so located that it will attract the passer-by, but it ...

The Wild Garden A Plea For Our Native Plants
Many persons, I find, are under the impression that we have few, if any, native flowering plants and shrubs that are worthy a place ...

The Winter Garden
Most persons who are the owners of gardens seem to be under the impression that we must close the summer volume of Nature's book at ...

Window And Veranda Boxes
Somebody had a bright thought when the window-box came into existence. The only wonder is that persons who were obliged to forego th...

Spring Work In The Garden
Not much actual work can be done in the garden, at the north, before the middle of April. But a good deal can be done toward getting...

Summer Work In The Garden
If weeds are kept down through the early part of the season, there will not be a great deal of weeding to do in midsummer. Still, we...

Fall Work In The Garden
Because the growth of grass on the lawn is not as luxuriant and rapid in fall as it is in midsummer, is no reason why the lawn shoul...

The Lawn: How To Make It And How To Take Care Of It
The owner of the average small home seldom goes to the expense of employing the professional gardener to do the work of lawn-making....

Planting The Lawn
When the lawn is made we begin to puzzle over the planting of trees and shrubbery. What shall we have? Where shall we have it?...

Shrubs
Every yard ought to have its quota of shrubs. They give to it a charm which nothing else in the plant-line can supply, because they ...

Vines
A home without vines is like a home without children--it lacks the very thing that ought to be there to make it most delightful and ...

The Hardy Border
The most satisfactory garden of flowering plants for small places, all things considered, is one composed of hardy herbaceous perenn...

The Garden Of Annuals
In preparing the garden for annuals, the first thing to do is to spade up the soil. This can be done shortly after the frost is out ...

The Bulb Garden
Every lover of flowers should have a garden of bulbs, for three reasons: First, they bloom so early in the season that one can have ...

The Rose: Its General Care And Culture
The owner of every garden tries to grow roses in it, but where one succeeds, ten fail. Perhaps I would be safe in saying that ninety...

The Rose As A Summer Bedder
The amateur gardener may enjoy Roses from June to November if he is willing to take a little trouble for them. Not, however, with th...

The Dahlia
Thirty or forty years ago the Dahlia was one of our popular flowers. That is, popular among those who aspired to "keep up with the t...

The Gladiolus
One of the most popular flowers of the day is the Gladiolus. All things considered, it is our best summer bloomer. Nothing in the fl...

Lilies
The Rose, like the Lily, is a general favorite. It has more than once disputed the claim of its rival to the title of Queen of Flowe...

Plants For Special Purposes
Amateur gardeners are always wanting plants for some special purpose, and, for their benefit, I propose to devote this chapter to "...

Arbors Summer-houses Pergolas And Other Garden Features
Few persons who daily pass attractive homes in the suburban districts of our large cities and the outlying country, realize that muc...

Carpet-bedding
Carpet-Bedding is not the most artistic phase of gardening, by any means, but it has a great attraction for many persons who admire ...

Flowering And Foliage Plants For Edging Beds And Walks
We do not lay as much stress on edging beds and walks with flowering plants as formerly, but the practice is a most pleasing one, an...

Planning The Garden
The flower garden not being one of the necessities of life, in the usual sense of the term, people are likely to consider the making...

The Back-yard Garden
A great deal is written about the flower-garden that fronts the street, or is so located that it will attract the passer-by, but it ...

The Wild Garden A Plea For Our Native Plants
Many persons, I find, are under the impression that we have few, if any, native flowering plants and shrubs that are worthy a place ...

The Winter Garden
Most persons who are the owners of gardens seem to be under the impression that we must close the summer volume of Nature's book at ...

Window And Veranda Boxes
Somebody had a bright thought when the window-box came into existence. The only wonder is that persons who were obliged to forego th...

Spring Work In The Garden
Not much actual work can be done in the garden, at the north, before the middle of April. But a good deal can be done toward getting...

Summer Work In The Garden
If weeds are kept down through the early part of the season, there will not be a great deal of weeding to do in midsummer. Still, we...

Fall Work In The Garden
Because the growth of grass on the lawn is not as luxuriant and rapid in fall as it is in midsummer, is no reason why the lawn shoul...

A Chapter Of Afterthoughts Which The Reader Cannot Afford To Miss
Think things out for yourself. Do not try to copy anybody else's garden, as so many attempt to do. Be original. What you see on y...

Soil Required Its Preparation
The potato is most profitably grown in a warm, dry, sandy, or gravelly loam, well filled with decayed vegetable matters. The famous po...

General Remarks On Manuring With Green Crops
Experience proves that no better method can be adopted to bring up lands partially exhausted, which are remote from cities, than plowi...

Varieties
From the fact that the United States produce about 109,000,000 bushels of potatoes annually, it might be supposed a great many varieti...

Influence Of Soil On Seedlings
The characteristics of a potato, such as quality, productiveness, healthfulness, uniformity of size, etc., depend much on the nature o...

How To Cross Varieties
In order to comprehend fully the principles of this subject, and their application to practical operations, it will be necessary to ta...

Smooth Vs Rough Potatoes
Other things being equal, smooth potatoes are preferable to those with deeply-sunken eyes. The starch being most abundant near the ski...

Cut And Uncut Seed
Many growers argue that potatoes should be planted whole. The only plausible theory in support of whole seed is, that the few eyes tha...

Planting And Manuring
Early kinds should be planted as soon as the ground has become sufficiently dry and warm. Late market varieties should be planted abou...

Cultivation
If weeds are expected, pass a light harrow over the rows just before the vines are ready to burst through; this will disturb them and ...

Plaster
However much lime or other fertilizers may be applied to the soil, still great benefit is derived from the use of plaster, (sulphate o...

The Potato-rot Its Cause
The year 1845 will ever be memorable by its giving birth to a disease which threatened the entire destruction of the potato crop, and ...

Remedy For The Potato-rot
In treating for the potato-rot, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure;" for when leaves or vines are once dead, they ever r...

Digging And Storing
Is full half the labor of growing and securing a crop of potatoes. Digging is a long, laborious task. Many small fortunes are sunk yea...

Insects Injurious To The Potato
There are ten distinct species of insects preying upon the potato-plant within the limits of the United States. Many of these ten spec...

General Remarks On Insects
The time is not far distant when the American farmer will be obliged to put forth greater efforts to destroy noxious insects than he h...

Value Of The Potato As Cattle Food
The constituents of the potato are according to different authorities, as follows: Water 75.2 Casein ...


Gardening Directory

Aaron's Rod
See "Solidago."...

Abelia
Very ornamental evergreen shrubs, bearing tubular,funnel-shaped flowers. They succeed in any ordinary soil if the situation is warm and sh...

Abies (spruce Firs)
Among these ornamental conifers mention may bemade of the beautiful Japanese Spruce Ajanensis, which grows freely in most soils and has du...

Abronia
Handsome half-hardy annual trailers. Grow in sandy peat andmultiply by root division. Flowers in April. Height, 4 in. to 6 in. ...

Abutilon
Evergreen greenhouse shrubs of great beauty and easycultivation. May be raised from seed, or by cuttings of young shoots placed in spring ...

Acacia
Winter and spring flowering greenhouse shrubs with charmingflowers and graceful foliage. May be grown from seed, which should be soaked in...

Acaena
These shrubby plants are herbaceous and mostly hardy, of acreeping nature, fast growers, and suitable for dry banks or rough stony places....

Acantholimon Glumaceum (prickly Thrift)
This is a frame evergreenperennial, thriving in any light, rich soil. It can be increased by dividing the roots. In May it puts forth its ...

Acanthus
A coarse, yet stately hardy perennial, which has largeornamental foliage, and flowers in August. It is not particular as to soil or situat...

Acer (maple)
Very vigorous plants, suitable when young for pots,and afterwards for the shrubbery. The A. Negundo Variegata has silvery variegated leave...

Achillea Ptarmica (sneezewort)
A pure white hardy perennial whichblooms in August. The dried leaves, powdered, produce sneezing. Any soil. Best increased by rooted off-s...

Achimenes
Fine plants, suitable for the greenhouse, sitting-room, orhanging baskets. Plant six tubers in a 5-in. pot, with their growing ends inclin...

Aconite (monk's-hood Or Wolf's-bane)
Very pretty and very hardy,and succeeds under the shade of trees; but being very poisonous should not be grown where there are children. I...

Acroclinium
Daisy-like everlastings. Half-hardy annuals suitablefor cutting during summer, and for winter bouquets. Sow in pots in February or March, ...

Acrophyllum Verticillatum
A greenhouse evergreen shrub. It will growin any soil, and may be increased by cuttings of half-ripened wood. March is its flowering seaso...

Acrotis
These are mostly hardy herbaceous plants from South Africa.The soil should consist of two parts loam and one part leaf-mould, and the situ...

Actaea Spicata (bane Berry)
A hardy herbaceous perennial whichdelights in a shady position, and will even grow under trees. It is increased by division of the roots, ...

Actinella Grandiflora
A showy herbaceous plant, bearing largeorange-coloured flowers in July. It is not particular as to soil, and is increased by dividing the ...

Actinomeris Squarrosa
This hardy and ornamental herbaceous plantbears heads of bright yellow flowers, resembling small sunflowers, from June to August. It thriv...

Adam's Needle
See "Yucca."...

Adenandra Fragrans
An evergreen shrub suitable for the greenhouse.It thrives best in a mixture of sandy peat and turfy loam. Cuttings of the young branches s...

Adenophora Lilifolia
Pretty hardy perennials suitable for theborder. Produce drooping pale blue flowers on branching spikes in July. Any soil suits them. They ...

Adlumia Cirrhosa
Interesting hardy climbers. Will grow in any soil,and are readily increased by seeds sown in a damp situation. Require the support of stak...

Adonis Flos
Showy crimson summer flowers, requiring only thesimplest treatment of hardy annuals. Sow in March or April in the open border. Height, 1 f...

Adonis Pyrenaica
A rare but charming Pyrenean perennial species,with thick ornamental foliage, and producing large golden-yellow flowers from May to July. ...

Adonis Vernalis
A favourite hardy perennial, which grows freely fromseed in any garden soil. It may also be increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft....

Aethionema Cordifolium
This little Alpine plant is a hardy evergreenthat is very suitable for rock-work, as it will grow in any soil. Its rose-hued flowers are p...

Agapanthus (african Lily)
This is a noble plant, which succeedswell in the open if placed in a rich, deep, moist loam in a sunny situation or in partial shade. In p...

Ageratum
Effective half-hardy annual bedding plants, thriving bestin a light, rich soil. Seed should be sown in heat in February or March. Cuttings...

Agricultural Seeds
Required per statute acre.Carrot 5 to 6 lb. Cabbage (to transplant) 1" Cabbage (to drill) 2 to 3" Kohl Rabi (to drill) 2 to 3" Lucerne 16 ...

Agrostemma
A hardy annual that is very pretty when in flower;suitable for borders. Flourishes in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown in spr...

Agrostis
A very elegant and graceful species of Bent-Grass. It is ahardy annual, and is largely used for bouquets. Sow the seed in March. Height, 1...

Ajuga Reptans
A hardy herbaceous perennial, suitable for the frontof borders. It will grow in any soil, and may be propagated by seeds or division. May ...

Akebia Quinata
This greenhouse evergreen twining plant delights in asoil of loam and peat; flowers in March, and is increased by dividing the roots. Heig...

Alchemilla Alpina (lady's Mantle)
A useful hardy perennial forrock-work. It will grow in any soil, if not too wet, and may be increased by seed sown in the spring or early ...

Allium Descendens
A hardy, bulbous perennial. Plant in October orNovember in any garden soil, and the flowers will be borne in July. Height, 1 ft. ...

Allium Neapolitanum
This is popularly known as the "Star." It bearslarge heads of pure white flowers, and is suitable for borders, pots, or forcing in a cool ...

Allspice
See "Calycanthus" and "Chimonanthus."...

Alonsoa
A pretty and free-blooming half-hardy annual, which producesfine spikes of orange-scarlet flowers in June. It is multiplied by cuttings or...

Aloysia Citriodora
This favourite lemon-scented verbena should begrown in rich mould. If grown in the open, it should be trained to a wall facing south, and ...

Alsine Rosani
This pretty little herbaceous plant, with its cushionsof green growth, makes a very fine display on rock-work or in any shady position. Or...

Alstromeria (peruvian Lilies)
These beautiful summer-floweringhardy perennials produce large heads of lily-like blossoms in great profusion, which are invaluable for cu...

Alternantheras
Cuttings of this greenhouse herbaceous plant may bestruck in autumn, though they are usually taken from the old plants in spring. Insert t...

Alyssum
Well adapted for rock-work or the front of flower-beds,and is best sown in autumn. The annual, or Sweet Alyssum, bears an abundance of sce...

Amaranthus
The foliage of these half-hardy annual plants areextremely beautiful, some being carmine, others green and crimson, some yellow, red, and ...

Amaryllis
These plants bear large drooping bell-shaped lily-likeblossoms. They thrive best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, with a fair quantity...

Ambrosia Mexicana
A hardy annual of the simplest culture. Sow theseed in spring in any fine garden soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

American Plants
These thrive most in a peat or bog soil, but wherethis cannot be obtained a good fertile loam, with a dressing of fresh cow manure once in...

Ammobium
Pretty hardy perennials which may be very easily raisedfrom seed on a sandy soil. Flower in June. Height, 2 ft. ...

Ampelopsis
Handsome and rapid climbers, with noble foliage, somechanging to a deep crimson in autumn. The Veitchii clings to the wall without nailing...

Anchusa
Anchusa Capensis is best raised in a frame and treated asa greenhouse plant, though in reality it is a hardy perennial. The annual and bie...

Andromeda
An ornamental evergreen shrub, commonly known as the MarshCystus, and thriving in a peat soil with partial shade. May be grown from seed s...

Androsace
Pretty little plants, mostly hardy, but some require theprotection of a frame. They grow best in small pots in a mixture of turfy loam and...

Anemones
These are highly ornamental, producing a brilliant displayof flowers. The scarlets make very effective beds. They are mostly hardy, and ma...

Anemonopsis Macrophylla
A rather scarce but remarkably handsomeperennial, producing lilac-purple flowers with yellow stamens in July and August. It will grow in o...

Angelonia Grandiflora Alba
An elegant and graceful greenhouse plant,giving forth a delicious aromatic odour. It grows best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, but t...

Annuals
Plants of this description arrive at maturity, bloom,produce seed, and die in one season. ...

Hardy
The seed should be sown thinly in the open bordersduring March, April, or May in fine soil, covering slightly with well-prepared mould--ve...

Tender
These must be sown on a hotbed, or in rather stronger heatthan is necessary for half-hardy descriptions. As soon as they are large enough ...

Anomatheca Cruenta
This produces an abundance of bright red flowerswith a dark blotch and a low growth of grass-like foliage. It is suitable for either vases...

Antennaria
Hardy perennial plants, requiring a rich, light soil.They flower in June and July, and may be increased by cuttings or division. The heigh...

Anthemis Tinctoria (yellow Marguerites)
These perennials arealmost hardy, needing protection merely in severe weather. They are readily raised from seed sown in gentle heat early...

Anthericum Liliago (st. Bernard's Lily)
One of the finest of hardyplants, and easy to grow. Planted in deep, free, sandy soil, it will grow vigorously, and in early summer throw ...

Anthericum Liliastrum (st. Bruno's Lily)
This hardy perennial is aprofuse bloomer, throwing up spikes of starry white flowers from May to July. Treat in the same manner as the for...

Anthoxanthum Gracila
Sweet vernal grass. It is graceful andornamental, and is used for edgings. Sow in spring, keeping the seed moist until it germinates. Heig...

Anthyllis Montana
A fine hardy perennial for rock-work. It is of aprocumbent habit, and has a woody nature. A vegetable soil is best suited for its growth, ...

Antirrhinum (snapdragon)
Handsome hardy perennials; most effectivein beds or borders. They stand remarkably well both drought and excessive rainfall, and succeed i...

Ants In Gardens
Contrary to general belief, ants do more goodthan harm to a garden; but as they are unsightly on flowers, it is advisable to tie a little ...

Aotus Gracillima
A charming and graceful evergreen shrub, whoseslender branches are covered with small pea-like flowers in May. It is most suitable for the...

Apios Tuberosa (glycine Apios)
An American climbing plant whichproduces in the autumn bunches of purple flowers of an agreeable odour. The foliage is light and elegant. ...

Aponogeton
See "Aquatics."...

Apples
Apples delight in a moist, cool climate. All apples will notsucceed on the same soil, some preferring clay, while others grow best in sand...

Apricots
Early in November is the most favourable time for plantingApricots. The soil--good, sound loam for preference--should be dug 3 ft. deep, a...

Aquatics
All aquatics grow best in wicker-baskets filled with earth.Cover the surface of the earth with hay-bands twisted backwards and forwards an...

Aquilegia (columbine)
Very ornamental and easily-grown hardyperennials. Sow seed in March in sandy soil, under glass, and transplant when strong enough. Common ...

Arabis Alpina (rock Cress, Or Snow In Summer)
Pure white hardyperennial, which is valuable for spring bedding. Not particular to soil, and easily raised from seed sown from March to Ju...

Aralia (fatsia Japonica)
Fine foliage plants, very suitable for ashady situation in a living-room. They may be raised from seed sown in autumn in a gentle heat, in...

Aralia Sieboldi (fig Palm)
This shrub is an evergreen, and isgenerally given stove culture, though it proves quite hardy in the open, where its large deep-green leav...

Araucaria Imbricata (the Monkey Puzzle, Or Chilian Pine)
Thisstrikingly handsome conifer is very suitable for a forecourt or for a single specimen on grass. Young plants are sometimes grown in th...

Arbutus (strawberry Tree)
Elegant evergreen shrubs with darkfoliage of great beauty during October and November, when they produce an abundance of pearly-white flow...

Arctostaphylos
These evergreen shrubs need the same treatment asArbutos. A. Uva-ursi, or Creeping Arbutos, is a pretty prostrate evergreen, which flowers...

Arctotis
A showy and interesting half-hardy annual. Raise the seedin a frame in March, and transplant in May. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam...

Arctotis Grandis
A very handsome, half-hardy annual producing largedaisy-like flowers on long wiry stems, the upper part being white and the base yellow an...

Ardisia Japonica
An evergreen shrub which delights in a mixture ofloam and peat. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass with a little bottom h...

Arenaria Balearica (sand Wort)
A hardy evergreen trailing plant ofeasy culture, provided it is favoured with a sandy soil. Its cushions of white flowers are produced in ...

Argemone
Interesting hardy annuals, succeeding well in any commongarden soil. Are increased by suckers or by seed sown in spring. Height, 6 in. to ...

Aristolochia Sipho (dutchman's Pipe)
This hardy, deciduous climbergrows best in peat and sandy loam with the addition of a little dung. It may be raised from cuttings placed i...

Armeria (thrift)
Handsome hardy perennials for rock-work or pots.They require an open, rich, sandy soil. Bloom June to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

Arnebia
Ornamental hardy annuals, closely allied to the Anchusa.The seeds are sown in the open in spring, and flowers are produced in July. Height...

Artemisia Annua
Pretty hardy annuals, the silvery leaves of theplant being very effective on rock-work. Sow the seed in spring where it is to flower. Heig...

Artemisia Villarsii
A hardy perennial whose graceful sprays offinely-cut silvery foliage are very useful for mixing with cut flowers. It may be grown from see...

Artichokes
The Jerusalem variety will flourish in light sandy soilwhere few other things will grow. Plant the tubers in March, 6 in. deep and 12 in. ...

Arum Lilies
In warm districts these beautiful plants may be grownin damp places out of doors, with a south aspect and a background of shrubs, though, ...

Arums
Remarkably handsome plants with fine foliage and curiousinflorescence more or less enclosed in a hooded spathe, which is generally richly ...

Asarum Europaeum
This curious hardy perennial will grow in almostany soil, and may be increased by taking off portions of the root early in autumn, placing...

Asclepias (swallow-wort)
Showy hardy perennials which requireplenty of room to develop. They may be grown from seed sown in August or April, or can be increased by...

Asparagus
Sow in March or April, in rich light soil, allowing theplants to remain in the seed-beds until the following spring; then transplant into ...

Asparagus Sprengeri
This delightful greenhouse climber is seen tobest advantage when suspended in a hanging basket, but it also makes an attractive plant when...

Asperula (woodruff)
A. Azurea Setosa is a pretty, light-bluehardy annual, which is usually sown in the open in autumn for early flowering; if sown in the spri...

Asphalte Paths
Sift coarse gravel so as to remove the dusty portion,and mix it with boiling tar in the proportion of 25 gallons to each load. Spread it e...

Asphodelus
Bold hardy herbaceous plants; fine for borders; will growin common soil, and flower between May and August. Increased by young plants take...

Aspidistra
This greenhouse herbaceous perennial is a drawing-roompalm, and is interesting from the fact that it produces its flowers beneath the surf...

Asters
This splendid class of half-hardy annuals has been vastlyimproved by both French and German cultivators. Speaking generally, the flowers o...

Astilbe
Ornamental, hardy herbaceous perennials, with large handsomefoliage, and dense plumes of flowers, requiring a peaty soil for their success...

Astragalus Alpinus
A hardy perennial bearing bluish-purple flowers.It will grow in any decent soil, and can be propagated from seed sown in spring or autumn,...

Astragalus Hypoglottis
A hardy deciduous trailing plant, producingpurple flowers in July. Sow the seed early in spring on a moderate hotbed, and plant out into a...

Astragalus Lotoides
This pretty little trailer is of the same heightas A. Hypoglottis, and merely requires the same treatment. It flowers in August. ...

Astrantia
This herbaceous plant is quite hardy, and will thrive inany good garden soil, producing its flowers in June and July. Seed may be sown eit...

Atragene Austriaca
Handsome, hardy climbers, which may be grown inany garden soil. They flower in August, and are increased by layers or by cuttings under gl...

Atriplex
Straggling hardy annuals of very little beauty. Will growin any soil if sown in spring, and only require ordinary attention. Flower in Jul...

Aubergine
See "Egg-Plant."...

Aubrietia
An early spring-blooming hardy perennial. Very ornamentaleither in the garden or on rock-work, the flowers lasting a long time. An open an...

Aucuba
Hardy evergreen shrubs, some having blotched leaves. Theylook well standing alone on grass plots, and are indifferent to soil or position....

Auricula
This is a species of primrose, and is sometimes calledBear's Ear from the shape of its leaves. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam and p...

Avena Sterilis
A very singular hardy-annual ornamental grass,generally known as Animated Oats. Very useful in a green state for mixing with cut flowers. ...

Azaleas (greenhouse)
A good soil for these deciduous shrubs ismade by mixing a fair quantity of silver sand with good fibrous peat. The plants must never be al...

Babianas
Charming, sweet-scented flowers, suitable for either potcultivation or the border. In August or September place five bulbs in a well-drain...

Bahia Lanata
A hardy herbaceous plant of easy culture from seed sownin spring or autumn in any garden soil. It produces bright orange flowers from June...

Bahia Trolliifolia
This hardy herbaceous perennial will grow in anykind of soil. It flowers in August, and can be increased by division. Height, 1 ft. ...

Balsams
The seeds of these tender annuals require to be sown inearly spring in a hot-house or a warm frame having a temperature of 65 to 75 degree...

Bambusa
The dwarf-growing Bamboos Fortunei variegata andViridi-striata make graceful edgings to borders or paths. The whole family like a rich, lo...

Baneberry
See "Actaea."...

Baptisia Australis
This ornamental hardy perennial makes a goodborder plant, growing in any loamy soil, and producing its blue flowers in June and July. It c...

Barbarea
See "Rocket."...

Barberries
Very ornamental hardy shrubs, bearing rich yellow flowersin spring and attractive fruit in the autumn. Most handsome when trained to a sin...

Bartonia Aurea
Beautiful hardy annuals, the flowers of which openat night and effuse a delightful odour. Sow the seed in autumn on a gentle hotbed; pot o...

Bay, Sweet (laurus Nobilis)
This half-hardy evergreen shrub likesa sheltered position. Protection from severe frosts is requisite, especially while it is young. It is...

Beans, Broad
A deep, strong loam is most suitable, but good cropscan be obtained from any garden soil. The first sowing should be made in February or M...

Beans, French
The soil should be dug over to a depth of at least 12in. and liberally enriched with manure. In the open ground the first sowing may be ma...

Beans, Runner
These are not particular as to position or soil, butthe best results are obtained by placing them in a deep rich mould where they can get ...

Beet
Land that has been well manured for the previous crop is thebest on which to obtain well-shaped roots of high quality. Sow in April and Ma...

Begonias
A somewhat succulent genus of conservatory plants. They allrequire a very rich loamy soil containing a little sand; and heat, moisture, an...

Belladonna Lily
See "Amaryllis."...

Bellis Perennis
See "Daisies."...

Benthamia
An ornamental half-hardy shrub. A profuse bloomer, theflowers of which are followed by edible strawberry-like fruit. Will succeed in any g...

Berberidopsis Corallina
Distinct and very pretty evergreen climbingshrubs, which prove hardy in the south and west, but need protection in other places. They are ...

Bergamot (monardia Didyma)
This hardy perennial will grow almostanywhere, and may be increased by seed or by division of the root. It flowers in July. Height, 4 ft. ...

Beta Cicla
A hardy annual which succeeds in any common soil. Itsdark crimson and yellow flowers are borne in August. Height, 6 ft. It is used as spin...

Betonica
See "Stachys."...

Biennials
These plants take two years to flower, and then they dieaway altogether. The seed of the hardy varieties is sown thinly in the open border...

Bignonia (trumpet Flower)
This is admirably suitable for a southwall, but it requires plenty of room. It is propagated by cuttings placed in sand, or by cuttings of...

Biota
See "Thuya."...

Bird Cherry
See "Cerasus."...

Blackberries
To obtain good crops plant in a poor, dry soil onraised banks facing south. The bushes should be planted 6 ft. apart. ...

Bladder Nut
See "Staphylea."...

Blanket Flower
See "Gaillardia."...

Bleeding Heart
See "Dielytra."...

Bocconia Cordata
Ornamental hardy perennials. They do best on aloamy soil, and may be increased by suckers taken from established plants in the summer and ...

Bog Or Marsh Land
By planting a few of the more distinct speciesadapted for such positions, bogs or marshes may be made interesting. The following plants ar...

Boltonia Asteroides
This is a hardy perennial which flowers inSeptember. The same treatment that is given to Asters is suitable for this plant. Height, 3 ft. ...

Bomarea
A useful greenhouse climber, the flowers of which arevaluable for cutting, as they last a long time in water. It thrives best in a mixture...

Borago Laxiflora
This very choice Boragewort is a trailing hardybiennial. It produces lovely pale pendent flowers from June to August, will grow in almost ...

Borecole, Kale, Or Curled Greens
Sow towards the end of March orearly in April. Plant out as soon as ready in moderately rich soil in rows 3 ft. apart, and the plants 2 ft...

Boronias
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. A single plant of B.Megastigma is sufficient to perfume a good-sized house. B. Drummondi, Elatior, Heterophyl...

Bougainvillea
A greenhouse evergreen climber, thriving best in aloamy soil. It flowers in June, and may be increased by cuttings. Height, 15 ft. ...

Bousingaultia Basselloides
A rapidly growing climber, beautiful bothin flower and foliage, the former of which is pure white, produced in July in elegant racemes fro...

Bouvardias
Favourite stove plants. They are propagated by pieces ofthe thick fleshy roots, about 2 in. long, inserted in light, rich, sandy soil, and...

Box Edging
A deep loam suits the box best. Cuttings should be takenearly in autumn. Dig a trench, and make the bottom firm and even. Set the young pl...

Brachycome (swan River Daisy)
Beautiful little half-hardy annualsbearing cineraria-like flowers that open well in the border in summer. If well watered in autumn and re...

Bravoa Geminiflora (twin Flower)
This hardy bulbous plant bearslovely racemes of coral-coloured flowers in July. A rich loam suits it best. Height, 1 ft. ...

Briza (quaking Grass)
There are several varieties of thisornamental hardy annual grass. Briza Gracillis is slender, and very pretty both in a green and dried st...

Broccoli
Requires a heavy, deep, rich soil, and liquid manure duringgrowth. For earliest crop sow thinly in beds early in March, giving a little pr...

Brodiaea Coccinea
Handsome plants for rock-work or the border. On adry, light, sandy soil, with plenty of sunshine, their gorgeous spikes of brilliant scarl...

Broom
Hardy shrubs thriving in almost any soil. Cuttings willstrike if planted in sand under glass. (See also "Genista" and "Spartium.") ...

Broussonetia Papyrifera
A very effective deciduous shrub, withlarge, curiously-cut leaves. It likes an open soil, and is propagated by cuttings. February is its b...

Browallia
Very handsome half-hardy annuals; will grow readily fromseed in any garden soil, but prefer a sandy one. They bloom in July. Height, 2 ft....

Brussels Sprouts
For a first crop sow early in March, and in Aprilfor succession. Transplant as soon as ready into deeply-trenched, well-manured soil, abou...

Bryanthus Erectus
A hardy evergreen shrub, which will grow in anysoil if the situation is shady and damp. It thrives without any sunshine, but will not endu...

Budding
Budding consists in raising an eye or bud from one part ofa bush or tree and transplanting it to another part, or to any other plant of th...

Buddlea
Half-hardy, tall, deciduous greenhouse shrubs, delighting ina loamy soil mixed with peat. They may be grown out of doors during the summer...

Bugloss (anchusa)
This showy plant, bearing large blue flowers inJune, may be increased by division of the roots into as many plants as there are heads, fro...

Bulbocodium Trigynum (colchicum Caucasium)
A miniature hardybulbous plant, which produces in February and March erect flowers about the size of snowdrops. Set the bulbs in sandy loa...

Bulbocodium Vernum (spring Saffron)
This bulb produces early inspring, and preceding the foliage, a mass of rose-purple flowers close to the ground. It is perfectly hardy, an...

Buphthalmum Salicifolium (deep Golden-yellow Marguerite)
Showyand ornamental hardy perennials. They will grow in any good soil, and flower from May to September; may be increased by suckers. Heig...

Burning Bush
See "Dictamnus" and "Fraxinella."...

Buxus (tree Box)
A useful evergreen shrub which may be grown inany soil or situation. The B. Japonica Aurea is one of the best golden plants known for edgi...

Cabbage
Sow from February to April for an autumn supply, and in Julyand August for spring cutting. As soon as the plants have made four or five le...

Cacalia
Hardy annuals, remarkable for their awkward-looking stemsand discoloured leaves. They grow best in a mixture of sandy loam, brick rubbish,...

Cactus
A sandy loam with brick rubbish and a little peat or rottenmanure suits them. Echinopsis is a good plant for cool houses or windows. Durin...

Caladiums
Favourite hothouse foliage plants, generally grown in peatsoil at a temperature of 70 degrees. They require plenty of light while growing,...

Calamintha Grandiflora
This hardy herbaceous plant hassweetly-fragrant foliage, and bears rose-coloured flowers from May to September. Any loamy soil suits it, a...

Calampelis
A species of half-hardy climbing plants of great merit.They are elegant when in flower, and will endure the open air. They should be train...

Calandrinia
Very pretty hardy annuals. They grow well in sunnyplaces in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be raised from seed sown in the spring or ...

Calceolaria
Many of the varieties are suitable for the greenhouseonly. They may be grown from seed, but as this is so small it should not be covered; ...

Calendula (marigolds)
Very showy hardy annuals. They merelyrequire sowing in the open in autumn for an early display of bloom, or in spring for a later show, bu...

Californian Plants
Great care should be taken not to allow the sunto strike on the collar of any of the plants from California, as they readily succumb if it...

Calla
These showy plants, sometimes called Arum, are worthcultivating. They make handsome pot-plants, bearing fine white flowers in the spring. ...

Callichroa
A hardy annual which well deserves a place in the gardenborder, both on account of its dwarf and slender habit and also the colour of its ...

Calliopsis
See "Coreopsis."...

Callirhoe (digitata)
Hardy annuals demanding but little attention.The seed is sown in the open in March. Height, 1 ft. ...

Calochortus Luteus
This very handsome hardy perennial thrives bestin sandy peat with a little loam. It produces yellow flowers in July, and is propagated by ...

Caltha
Early-flowering, showy perennials, all thriving in a moist orboggy situation. C. Leptosepala is especially choice, its pure white flowers ...

Calthus Palustris Flore-pleno (double Marsh Marigold)
This hardyherbaceous perennial is very useful for mixing with cut flowers. It will grow anywhere, but prefers a clayey soil and a boggy si...

Calycanthus Floridus (allspice)
This shrub likes an open loamysoil; flowers in July, and is propagated by layers. Height, 6 ft. ...

Calystegia
A perfectly hardy climbing convolvulus, and a beautifulplant for covering arbours, etc., growing 20 ft. to 30 ft. in one season. It thrive...

Camassia Esculenta
A handsome, hardy, bulbous plant, bearingclusters of beautiful blue flowers in July. It needs a sandy peat border under a north wall, and ...

Camellias
The best soil for these beautiful greenhouse evergreens isa mixture of rough peat, plenty of sand, and a little turfy loam. The greenhouse...

Campanula
A showy genus of plants, mostly hardy perennials, whichneed no special treatment. They are readily raised from seed, or division of roots....

Canary Creeper (tropaeolum Canariense)
This is eminently suitablefor trellis-work or for walls. Its elegant foliage and bright yellow flowers make it a general favourite. It may...

Candytuft (iberis)
Very pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed inautumn in a light, rich soil, or in spring if a less prolonged flowering season will give satisf...

Canna (indian Shot Or Hemp)
For pot-plants on terraces, gravelwalks, and such like places, few things can equal and none surpass Cannas. They are half-hardy perennial...

Cannabis Gigantea (giant Hemp)
This half-hardy Hemp is grown forits ornamental foliage, and is treated as above described. Height, 6 ft. ...

Canterbury Bells
Showy hardy biennials, which may be raised fromseed sown in the spring. Transplant in the autumn to the border where they are intended to ...

Cape Primroses
See "Streptocarpus."...

Caprifolium
See "Honeysuckle."...

Capsicum
Sow early in March in well-drained pots of rich, light,free mould; cover the seed with 1/2 in. of soil, and keep it constantly moist at a ...

Cardamine Pratensis (cuckoo Flower, Or Milkmaid)
This hardyperennial thrives in a moist, shady situation. It produces its purple flowers from May to August, and is easily propagated by se...

Cardamine Trifolia
A hardy herbaceous plant; will grow in any soil,flowers in May, and is easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

Cardoons
Sow two or three seeds together in clumps 1 ft. apart, intrenches prepared as for Celery, in April or May. When 6 in. high pull up the sup...

Carduus (milk Thistle)
Coarse hardy annuals; somewhat ornamental,but are hardly more than weeds. They grow freely from seed, and flower from June to August. Heig...

Carex Japonica
This is a graceful and very beautiful variegatedgrass, striped green, silver, and gold, and makes a fine decoration for the table. It will...

Carlina
Ornamental, thistle-like, hardy perennials, which will growin any ordinary soil. Flowers are borne from June to September. Seed may be sow...

Carnations
These are divided into three classes, but they are allsaid originally to come from the clove: (1) Flakes, which are striped with one colou...

Carnation Margaritae
May be sown in heat during February or March,pricked out when strong enough, and planted in the open in May or June. ...

Carpenteria Californica
The white flowers of this evergreen shrub,which make their appearance in July, are delicately fragrant. The plant is most suitable for a c...

Carrots
To grow them to perfection carrots require a deep, rich,sandy soil, which has been thoroughly trenched and manured the previous autumn. Fo...

Cassia Corymbosa
This stove shrub is an evergreen. It should begrown in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under ...

Castor Oil Plants
See "Ricinus."...

Catananche
Pretty hardy biennials that will grow in almost anysoil, and may be increased by seed or division. They bloom in August. Height, 21/2 ft. ...

Catchfly
See "Silene."...

Cathcartia Villosa
A beautiful Himalayan poppy, possessing a rich,soft, hairy foliage and yellow flowers, borne in succession from June to September. Any lig...

Cauliflowers
Sow thinly in pans or shallow boxes early in Februaryand March on a gentle bottom-heat. Make a larger and the main sowing in the open grou...

Ceanothus
A genus of handsome and ornamental evergreen shrubs.They are free-flowering and suitable for the conservatory or outdoor decoration if pla...

Cedronella
Ornamental hardy perennials; will grow in any soil, butrequire a little protection in the winter. They produce their deep purple flowers i...

Cedrus Deodora
A beautiful and graceful conifer, its arched branchesbeing thickly set with long grey-coloured or whitish-green leaves. In its young stage...

Celery
Sow in February or early in March on a mild hotbed for theearliest crop. Prick the seedlings off into shallow boxes as soon as they are la...

Celosia (feathered Cockscomb)
Sow the seed in early spring ina warm frame; prick off singly into small pots, and re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam...

Centaurea
The hardy annual and biennial kinds merely require to besown in the open in the autumn. The half-hardy ones must be sown on a slight hotbe...

Centauridium Drummondi
A blue hardy annual which may be sown in theopen in spring. ...

Centranthus
Ornamental hardy annuals. Sow in the open border inMarch in any good, well-drained soil. They flower in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

Cephalaria (yellow Scabious)
Strong-growing hardy perennials,suitable for backs of borders. They succeed in any garden soil, and are propagated by seed or division of ...

Cephalotaxus (podocarpus Koraiana)
Handsome conifers of the Yewtype. These shrubs are quite hardy, and in favoured localities will produce berries. They succeed best in a da...

Cerastium Biebersteini
A hardy trailing perennial which will grow inany light soil, and may be increased by suckers. It flowers in June. Height, 6 in. ...

Cerasus Padus (bird Cherry)
An ornamental tree; useful in theshrubbery in its earlier stages, as it will grow in any soil. It may be increased by seed, budding, or gr...

Cerinthe
Hardy annuals, suitable for any ordinary soil, and needingmerely ordinary treatment. A grand plant for bees. Height, 1 ft. ...

Cestrums
Charming conservatory plants, flowering early in spring.Cuttings may be taken in autumn, placed in small pots in a light compost of peat a...

Chamaepeuce
Half-hardy perennial Thistle plants of little merit. Anysoil suits them, and they may be increased by seed or division. Flower in June. He...

Chamaerops (chusan Palm)
Fine greenhouse plants, delighting in arich, loamy soil. Height, 10 ft. ...

Cheiranthus
See "Wallflower."...

Chelidonium
This hardy perennial will flourish in any garden soil;flowers in May, and may be increased by division. Height, 2 ft. ...

Chelone
Charming hardy herbaceous plants. Succeed well in a mixtureof peat and loam or any rich soil. Increased by division of root, or by seed tr...

Cherries
A light, rich soil is the one that Cherries succeed inbest, though they will grow in any fairly good dry ground. The position should be op...

Cherry (cornelian)
See "Cornus Mas."...

Cherry Pie
See "Heliotrope."...

Chervil
For summer use sow in March, and for winter requirements inJuly and August, in shallow drills 6 or 8 in. apart. Cut for use when 3 or 4 in...

Chestnuts
To raise trees from seed sow the nuts in November, about2 in. deep. When two years old they may be transplanted to their permanent site. T...

Chicory
Sow in May or June in drills of rich soil, and thin out to6 in. apart. In autumn lift the roots and store them in dry sand. To force leave...

Chilli
Same treatment as Capsicum....

Chimonanthus Fragrans (japan Allspice)
This delightfully fragranthardy shrub, known as the Winter Flower, produces its blooms in January before the leaves appear. Should sharp f...

The Gods, The Chinese Emblem Of Good Luck)
This is a very beautifulvariety of the Polyanthus Narcissus, and is grown to bloom at the advent of the Chinese New Year. It is very fragr...

Chionanthus Virginica (fringe Tree)
A curious shrub which is bestraised from seed. It succeeds in any soil, and bears white flowers in July. It will grow to the height of 20 ...

Chionodoxa Luciliae (glory Of The Snow)
A pretty hardyspring-flowering bulbous plant. The blossoms, from five to six in number, are produced on gracefully arched stems, 4 to 8 in...

Choisya Ternata (mexican Orange)
A pretty evergreen wall plant,bearing sweet-scented white flowers in July. The bush is round, and extremely ornamental when grown in the s...

Chorozemas
These Australian plants delight in rich turfy peat mixedwith fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and coarse sand. When freshly potted they should be...

Christmas Rose
See "Helleborus."...

Chrysanthemum
The Chrysanthemum will grow in any good mould, anaturally good soil being often preferable to an artificial one. Where the ground is not i...

Chrysogonum Virginianum
A free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant,best grown in loam and peat. Its deep-golden, star-shaped flowers are produced from June to Sept...

Cichorium Intybus
This is a hardy herbaceous plant producing blueflowers in July. It will grow in any soil and needs no special treatment. Seeds may be sown...

Cimcifuga
These hardy herbaceous plants will flourish in any goodgarden soil and are easily raised from seed, or they may be increased by dividing t...

Cinerarias
These grow well in a soil composed of equal parts of richloam, leaf-mould, and thoroughly rotted horse-dung, liberally mixed with sharp sa...

Cinnamon Plant
This is a stove or greenhouse plant, and requires aloam and peat soil. Cuttings of the ripe wood strike freely. ...

Cissus Orientalis
Useful climbing plants which delight in a light,rich soil. They are increased by cuttings planted under glass and kept in a gentle, moist ...

Cistus (rock Rose)
A compost of loam and peat suits thesebeautiful evergreen shrubs. They may be increased by layers, ripe cuttings covered with a hand-glass...

Citrus Japonica
A greenhouse evergreen tree, requiring a rich loamysoil. Very little water should be given it while in a growing state. It is generally bu...

Cladanthus
The annuals may be sown in the open in April to flower inJuly. The greenhouse evergreens may be propagated by cuttings under glass. These ...

Clarkia
These hardy annuals make a pretty display in the bordersduring summer. Seed ripens plentifully, and merely requires sowing in the open in ...

Claytonia Sibirica
A hardy herbaceous plant which yields lightyellow flowers in June. It is not particular as to soil, and may be raised from seed sown eithe...

Clematis (virgin's Bower)
These plants like a dry situation. Theywill grow in smoky districts, and may be increased by cuttings of firm side-shoots under a glass in...

Cleome
The species of this genus are very pretty and free flowering,some being half-hardy climbers notable for their foliage. They like a rich, l...

Clethra Alnifolia
This hardy deciduous shrub bears in Septemberdeliciously scented pure white flowers on the side-shoots of the previous year's growth. It n...

Clianthus
A genus of very elegant, free-flowering, evergreengreenhouse shrubs. They flourish in the border of the conservatory (or against a south w...

Clintonia
Very pretty half-hardy annuals; useful for beds, edging,pots, or rock-work. They produce an abundance of Lobelia-like flowers in August. S...

Clitoria
A greenhouse climbing or trailing plant, which thrives in amixture of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings will strike in heat, but it is more r...

Clivias (caffre Lilies)
Most beautiful evergreen plants forthe greenhouse. The soil most suitable for them is a compost of leaf-mould, loam, and sand. Give a libe...

Cobaea Scandens
This rapid climber is well adapted for theconservatory, but it will thrive in the open air if the root is protected during the winter. If ...

Cob Nuts
See "Filberts."...

Cockscomb
These tender annuals should be sown on a moderate hotbedin March or April, in pans of leaf-mould and sand, covering with 1/4 in. of soil. ...

Codonopsis
These hardy perennials are best grown in sandy peat andloam. They are easily raised from seed or cuttings, and produce their flowers in Ju...

Coix Lachryma (job's Tears)
A half-hardy, annual, ornamental grassbearing clusters of beautiful pearl-like seeds. Sow in a warm spot in April, barely covering the see...

Colchicum (autumn-flowering Crocus)
Plant the bulbs in February inlight, loamy soil, placing them 2 in. deep and 3 in. apart. They are readily increased by off-sets from the ...

Coleus
Tender perennial shrubs of some merit, requiring theprotection of a greenhouse. Keep the plants root-bound and near the glass, with a good...

Colletia
Ornamental evergreen shrubs. A mixture of peat and loam,with a sheltered position, is their delight. Cuttings will strike in sand if cover...

Collinsia
Most elegant hardy annuals, doing well in any garden soil.The seed is sown in autumn for early flowering, and in spring for a later displa...

Collomia
Hardy annuals, possessing little beauty. Treat asCollinsia. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft. ...

Colt's-foot
This hardy perennial flowers before the leaves appear.It grows best in a moist, clayey soil, and may be increased by pieces of the running...

Columbine
See "Aquilegia."...

Colutea Arborescens (bladder Senna)
A shrub with Acacia-likeleaves and producing yellow Pea-shaped flowers in July, followed with bladder-shaped seed vessels. It will grow in...

Commelina Sellowina (blue Spider Wort, Or Day Flower)
A prettygreenhouse climber, bearing cobalt-blue flowers. It should occupy a sunny position, and be watered freely from March to September,...

Commelina Tuberosa
Perfectly hardy plants, bearing in June blue orwhite flowers the size of a shilling. The bulbs may be planted in spring in any garden soil...

Compost Heap
Get a heap of dead leaves and press and jam them downas closely as possible. Then take as much manure, in appearance, as you have dead lea...

Comptonia Asplenifolia
This ornamental deciduous shrub is quitehardy, but requires a light, sandy loam or peat soil and a shady situation. It is increased by lay...

Cone Flower
See "Echinacea."...

Conifers
Conifers (so called because they bear cones in place ofordinary seed) are mostly of tall growth, yet among the class are many low--growing...

Convallaria Prolificans
This is one of the most beautiful hardyperennials known. It has large, deep-green foliage, with erect and much-branched flower-stems. The ...

Convolvulus (morning Glory)
Showy plants. The tender species arewell adapted for the stove or conservatory, and are best grown in loam and peat: cuttings strike freel...

Coral Plant
See "Erythrina."...

Corchorus
See "Kerria."...

Cordyline
A stove evergreen shrub, which may be grown in any light,vegetable mould or in peat and loam, and is easily increased by suckers. It flowe...

Coreopsis
Very pretty and long-flowering. They all like a light,rich, and sandy soil. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under glass. Hardy per...

Cornel
See "Cornus."...

Cornflower
See "Cyanus."...

Corn Salad (lamb's Lettuce)
Sow in drills--the plants to stand 6in. apart--from March till August, in well-drained sandy loam. Autumn sowings will stand the winter an...

Cornus Canadensis (canadian Cornel)
A pretty herbaceous plant,suitable for moist parts of rock-work. It is very hardy, likes a light soil, and produces flowers from June to A...

Cornus Mas (cornelian Cherry)
This hardy deciduous shrub doeswell in common soil if a fair amount of moisture be given. Its yellow flowers are produced on bare stems fr...

Coronilla
The greenhouse shrubs should be grown in peat and loam.They are raised by seeds and by cuttings. Most of the hardy perennials need protect...

Coronilla Iberica
A pretty creeping hardy perennial suitable forrock-work, on which its bright yellow flowers are very attractive during June and July. It t...

Correa Cardinalis
An evergreen greenhouse shrub. Place in equalparts of sand and loam, and propagate by cuttings, which should have plenty of room, as they ...

Cortusa Matthioli
This ornamental hardy herbaceous plant thrivesbest in a mixture of peat and loam. It is advisable to give protection to the roots in winte...

Corydalis (fumitory)
These low-growing perennials are suitable fordry positions on rock-work. They are not particular as to soil, and may be increased by divis...

Cosmea Bipinnata
A very pretty half-hardy annual which flowers inJuly. Sow the seed early in spring on a slight hotbed covered with glass, and transplant t...

Cosmos
Pretty plants, the flowers resembling a single Dahlia. Theyare mostly hardy, but some need protection. The annuals should be raised on a h...

Cotoneaster
Evergreen shrubs which will grow in any soil and areeasily increased by layers. C. Hookeriana attains the dimensions of small trees, and p...

Cowslips
Well-known hardy perennials. These require the sametreatment as Primulas. Plant in a mixture of loam and peat, and divide as soon as the b...

Cowslips, Cape
See "Lachenalia."...

Crambe Cordifolia (tournefort, Or Sea Cabbage)
This hardyherbaceous plant is suitable for a wild garden. It likes a good, rich soil, and is easily increased by seed or division. August ...

Crane's Bill
See "Geranium Argentium."...

Crataegus Pyracantha (fire Thorn)
This hardy, ornamental shrubwill grow in any soil. It should be planted early in spring on a south or south-west wall, and may be increase...

Creeping Jenny
See "Lysimachia Nummularia."...

Crepis (hawkweed)
An interesting hardy annual. It merely requiressowing in spring, and will grow in any soil. The flowers are produced in June. Height, 1 ft...

Cress
Sow at intervals of a week from March to September in the openground, and during the winter months in frames. A shady position is most sui...

Crocus
Among our earliest spring flowers. These will grow in anygarden soil, but prefer rich, sandy earth. Plant in October or November, 3 in. de...

Indoor Culture
Select strong bulbs of the seedling varieties, andplant them in succession, commencing early in autumn, in good, rich, sandy soil. A liber...

Crotons
Fine-foliaged hothouse plants. A mixture of peat and sandyloam suits their growth, and they require a good amount of light to properly col...

Crowea Saligna
Charming greenhouse evergreen shrubs, which sendforth their purple flowers in September. They grow best in loam and peat. Cuttings may be ...

Crown Imperials
See "Fritillarias."...

Crucianella Stylosa
A hardy perennial. Sow in August or September ina sheltered spot to stand the winter. The seed may also be sown from March to midsummer, a...

Cuckoo Flower
See "Cardamine."...

Cucumbers
A rich, loamy soil is most suitable for their growth. Sowframe varieties in a heat of 75 degrees or 85 degrees during February and March f...

Cunila Mariana (dittany)
This hardy perennial produces heads ofpretty purple flowers from July to September. It is not particular as to soil, and can easily be inc...

Cuphea
Shrubs of a rather pretty description. The stove varietiesrequire a sandy loam to grow in, and may be propagated by cuttings. The annuals ...

Currants
Black.--A rich, deep soil and a moist situation, togetherwith partial shade, are most suitable for their growth. They succeed better as bu...

Currants, Flowering
See "Ribes."Cyanthus Lobatus--A small, but very beautiful procumbent perennial, well adapted to fill moist places on rock-work if the situ...

Cyanus(cornflower)
Very pretty and free-blooming hardy annuals.Sow the seed in the open in autumn for an early display of flowers, or in March for a later on...

Cyclamen
Charming winter and spring blooming bulbous greenhouseplants, which thrive in a mixture of sandy loam and vegetable mould. They require a ...

Cydonia (pyrus)
These hardy plants are well adapted fortrellis-work, but are more effective when grown as bushes, and flower more freely than when trained...

Cyperius Alternifolius
A stove grass which will grow in any soil,but requires a plentiful supply of water. It is increased by dividing the roots. Height, 2 ft. ...

Cypress (cupressus)
Among these useful conifers C. Lawsoniana hasno superior as a single specimen for the decoration of the lawn. Of free growth and perfectly...

Cypripedium (hardy Ladies' Slipper Orchid)
This plant is ofthe simplest culture and is well adapted for pots, ferneries, or rock-work. It is most at home in a well-drained yet moist...

Cytisus
Elegant hardy shrubs with finely-cut leaves and terminalracemes of Pea-shaped flowers in July. They will grow in any soil, and are readily...

Daffodils
These will grow in any good, cool, moist, well-drainedgarden soil if sand be put round their roots, but thrive best in a moderately rich l...

Dahlias
These attractive plants require a deep, friable soil, notover rich. They may be grown from seed sown on a hotbed in March and lightly cove...

Daisies (bellis Perennis)
These pretty, little hardy perennialsare very useful as edgings. To grow them to perfection the ground should be highly manured, and the r...

Dandelions
Dandelions on lawns, etc., may be killed by cutting themdown as low as possible, and putting a little gas-tar or a pinch of salt on the wo...

Daphne
Beautiful shrubs, mostly evergreens, bearing elegant flowersfollowed by bright-red poisonous berries. D. Mezereum is the most common varie...

Datura
Ornamental half-hardy annuals. The seeds of all the speciesmust be sown on a hotbed early in spring. When the plants are strong enough tra...

Day Flower
See "Commelina."...

Day Lily
See "Hemerocallis."...

Delphinium (larkspur)
The gorgeous spikes of flowers produced bythese plants render them invaluable for the border. They like a deep soil, highly enriched. The ...

Dentaria Digitata (toothwort)
This tuberous hardy perennial growswell in old leaf-mould, and is very suitable for the base portion of rock-work, where it can obtain bot...

Desfontania Spinosa
A fine, evergreen wall shrub with holly-likeleaves, and long, pendulous scarlet and orange flowers in June. It grows best in a compost of ...

Desmodium Canadense
This is a fine border hardy perennial, producinglong racemes of rosy-purple flowers in June or July. It prefers a soil of sandy loam and p...

Desmodium Pendulaeflorum
A hardy evergreen shrub, flowering in July.It thrives in sandy loam and peat. Cuttings planted in sand with a little bottom-heat and under...

Deutzia
A beautiful conservatory shrub, bearing in spring a largequantity of flowers resembling the snowdrop. A peaty soil suits it. It is pretty ...

Devil-in-a-bush
See "Nigella."...

Dianthus
Very beautiful and fragrant flowers. The genus embracesCarnations, Pinks, Picotees, and Sweet Williams. The soil most suitable for them is...

Dictamnus (burning Bush)
See "Fraxinella."Dielytra Spectabilis (Venus's Car, Bleeding Heart, or Lyre ...

Flower)
One of the most elegant hardy perennials for forcingfor table decorations, or cutting for vases. The graceful, pendent branches are laden ...

Digitalis (foxglove)
Very showy, hardy, perennial border plants.They will grow in any garden soil, and are readily raised from seed, which, if sown in the autu...

Digitata
See "Callirhoe."...

Dimorphantus (aralia Sinensis)
The Dimorphantus Mandschuricus isone of the noblest of deciduous shrubs, the foliage being very large and much divided. Any soil is suitab...

Dimorphotheca Ecklonis
This plant is not perhaps quite hardy, stillit may be grown out of doors in a sheltered, sunny situation. It grows well in sandy loam and ...

Diphylleia Cymosa
A very pretty bog plant which blooms from June toAugust. Plant in rich, light soil, and give plenty of water. It is propagated by division...

Diplacus Glutinosus (hard-wooded Mimulus)
This elegant greenhouseshrub is an evergreen which delights in a rich, sandy loam. It flowers in June, and is increased by cuttings. Heigh...

Diplopappus
Dwarf-growing evergreen shrubs of pretty habit. Thegolden stems and leaves of D. Chrysophylla render that variety specially attractive. A ...

Disemma
Splendid evergreen climbers, suitable either for thegreenhouse or in a sheltered position out of doors. Plant in rich, loamy soil mixed wi...

Dittany
See "Cunila."...

Docks, To Kill
Cut the weeds down to the ground, and run a skewerdipped in vitriol through the roots. ...

Dodecatheon
A hardy perennial, which is very ornamental when inflower. It grows best in a loamy soil, and is easily increased by dividing the roots. B...

Dog's-tooth Violets
See "Violets."...

Dolichos Lablab
Half-hardy annuals. The seed should be sown inspring in pots placed in heat, and kept in the hothouse till May, when the plants may be set...

Dondia Epipactis
A very pretty and extremely hardy little perennial,suitable for either pot culture or rock-work. It thrives in peat or leaf-mould, and lik...

Doronicum (leopards Bane)
An ornamental hardy perennial. It willgrow in any garden soil, and may be propagated from seed sown either in the autumn or spring, or by ...

Draba
Pretty dwarf Alpine plants which bloom during April and May;very suitable for rock-work. They flourish in a compost of loam and peat, and ...

Dracaena Indivisa
A stove evergreen shrub much valued for itsfoliage and as a table plant. It requires a light, loamy soil and plenty of light. Cuttings stu...

Dracocephalum (dragon's Head)
Ornamental plants, mostly bearinglilac or blue flowers. Many of the half-hardy kinds are grown in pots, so that they may the more readily ...

Dracophyllum
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs of an ornamental character.The pots should be filled with an equal mixture of sand and peat. They are propagat...

Dragon's Head
See "Dracocephalum."...

Dryas Octopetala (mountain Avens)
A prostrate, creeping perennialwhich bears white Anemone-like flowers from July to September. It thrives in peat, and is increased by seed...

Earwigs, To Trap
An inverted flower-pot, containing a little drymoss or hay, placed on a stick, forms a good trap for these pests. They will also congregat...

Eccremocarpus (calampelis)
These climbing half-hardy perennialswill grow in any garden soil, a light, loamy one being preferable. Sow the seed in autumn on a slight ...

Echeveria
Choice greenhouse evergreen shrubs. They grow best in asandy loam, with a little peat, mixed with pulverised brick rubbish. Water must be ...

Echinacea Purpurea (purple Cone Flower)
A stately hardy perennial,very pretty when in flower, but hardly suitable for cutting purposes. It likes a rich, light, loam soil and plen...

Echinops (globe Thistle)
Coarse perennial plants, of stiff growth.Any soil suits them, and they may be increased by dividing the roots. They bloom in July. Height,...

Echium Creticum
A scarlet-flowering hardy annual which should begrown wherever bees are kept. Sow in spring in any garden soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

Edelweiss
See "Gnaphalium."...

Edraianthus Dalmaticus
A charming little herbaceous perennial whichproves quite hardy in our climate, and well deserves a place in the rockery. Plant in deep, ri...

Egg-plant (aubergine)
The fruit of the egg-plant is edible. Theseed is sown in March or April in pots of well-drained, light, rich soil, and placed in a cucumbe...

Eggs Of Insects, To Destroy
Into 3 gallons of water stir 1/4 peckof lime, 1/2 lb. of sulphur, and 1/2 lb. of tobacco. When settled, syringe the trees and walls with t...

Eichhornia Crassipes Major
A pretty and curious plant which may begrown in bowls of water like the Chinese Lily. The stalks are bladders about the size of a greengag...

Elder
See "Sambucus."...

Eleagnus
Effective variegated shrubs which prove perfectly hardyin the south of England. They grow in any ordinary soil, and are increased by cutti...

Elsholtzia Cristata
Hardy annuals of great value where there arebees, the flowers being very sweet. Sow in the open in spring. Height, 1 ft. ...

Empetrum
Small hardy evergreen shrubs requiring an elevated andexposed position, and a dry, barren soil. They flower in May, and are propagated by ...

Endive
Sow at intervals from May till the end of August, but theprincipal sowing, to stand the winter, should be made the first week in August, g...

Epacris
Pretty Heath-like shrubs. They like a sandy peat soil, andplenty of moisture. The pots in which they grow should be provided with ample dr...

Epigaea Repens (creeping Laurel)
This creeper is hardy andevergreen, and its flowers possess a delicious fragrance. It may be grown in loam and sandy peat or in leaf-mould...

Epilobium Angustifolium
An ornamental herbaceous plant which may begrown in any common soil from seed sown in autumn, or may be increased by division of the roots...

Epimedium
An elegant hardy perennial, suitable for shaded bordersor rock-work. The best soil for it is sandy peat. It flowers between April and June...

Eragrostis Elegans (love Grass)
One of the best of our hardy,annual, ornamental grasses. Sown in March, it will reach perfection in August or September. Height, 1 ft. ...

Eranthis Hyemalis
See "Winter Aconite."...

Eremurus Robustus
This hardy perennial bears tall, handsome spikesof sweetly-scented, peach-coloured flowers in May. It will grow in any ordinary soil, and ...

Ericas (heaths)
It is useless to attempt to grow these beautifulshrubs unless proper soil is provided. The free-growing kinds thrive best in good black pe...

Erigeron
Very handsome hardy perennials, producing a copious displayof bloom. They will grow in any soil, and may be increased by division or by se...

Erinus
The hardy perennial kinds bloom in March, the greenhousevarieties in May. The latter are very pretty. They all like a sandy soil, and may ...

Eriogonum
These pretty, hardy, herbaceous plants bloom in June. Theygrow best in a compost of loam and peat, and are easily raised from seed. Height...

Eriostemon
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Grow in sandy peat with alittle loam added. Cuttings will strike in sand. They flower in May and June. Height...

Erodium
An extensive genus of very beautiful plants, mostly hardy.They will grow in any soil, and merely require ordinary treatment. The bloom is ...

Eryngium
A very ornamental and beautiful kind of Thistle. They aremostly quite hardy, and will grow in any garden soil, though they thrive best in ...

Erysimum
Flowers of little merit. The herbaceous kinds thrive incommon soil, but do best in a mixture of loam and peat. They may be increased by cu...

Erythrina Crista Galli (coral Plant)
A showy, summer-bloominggreenhouse plant. Place it in turfy loam enriched with old manure. It may be transferred to the garden in the summ...

Erythronium Dens-canis (dog's Tooth Violets)
See "Violets."...

Escallonia
Handsome, half-hardy, evergreen shrubs, possessing richglaucous leaves and bunches of tubular flowers. A peat and sandy loam soil suits th...

Eschscholtzia
Pretty hardy annuals, especially during August, whenthey are in flower. Any rich soil suits them. Easily raised from seed sown on a gentle...

Eucalyptus Citriodora
A useful window or greenhouse plant, withsmall, oblong, bright green leaves, furnished with appendages that emit an odour resembling the L...

Eucalyptus Globulus
A greenhouse everlasting tree, commonly known asBlue Gum. It delights in a mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings, which should not be ...

Eucharidium
Pretty little hardy annuals, nearly allied to theClarkia. The seed may be sown in autumn for early flowering, or in spring for blooming in...

Eucomis Punctata
A fine, autumn-blooming plant, bearing long spikesof fragrant creamy-white flowers and curiously-spotted stems. It may be grown in any ric...

Eucryphia Pinnatifida
A dwarf evergreen shrub with flowersresembling a white St. John's Wort. It grows best in a compost of loam and peat, and is propagated by ...

Eugenia Ugni
An evergreen shrub which produces white flowers in May,succeeded by round, edible berries. It should be grown in loam and peat. Ripened cu...

Eulalia Japonica
A hardy perennial Giant Grass. It is very handsomeas single specimens on lawns, or used in groups on the margins of shrubberies. The flowe...

Euonymus Radicans Variegata
A hardy evergreen shrub which, given asunny situation, will grow in any soil, though a rich, sandy one is preferable. It may be increased ...

Eupatorium Odoratum
A greenhouse shrub which bears sweet-scentedwhite flowers in August, continuing in bloom for a long while. It may be planted out at the en...

Euphorbia
An elegant class of plants. The stove and greenhousevarieties are generally succulent, and require but little water, while the hardy kinds...

Eurya Latifolia Variegata
A fine, variegated, large-leavedevergreen, very suitable for covering a low wall, or for conservatory decoration. It delights in a compost...

Eurybia
Very pretty flowering shrubs for walls, borders, orrockeries. They require a light, rich soil, and may be increased by seeds sown early in...

Eutaxia Myrtifolia
Pretty evergreen shrubs, suitable for thegreenhouse. They thrive best in a mixture of peat and loam, and require the pots to be well drain...

Eutoca
Exceedingly pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in light soilearly in spring where it is to flower, and thin out so that the plants have pl...

Evening Primrose
See "Oenothera."...

Everlasting Peas
See "Peas, Everlasting."F ...

Fabacea
See "Thermopsis."...

Fatsia Japonica
See "Aralia."...

Feather Grass
See "Stipa Pennata."...

Fennel
Sow the seed in April, cover lightly with fine mould, andwhen the plants are strong enough set them out 1 ft. apart. Cut off the flower-st...

Fenzlia
Elegant half-hardy annuals. Sow the seed on a peat soil. Ifthis be done in autumn, they will flower in April or May; if sown in spring, th...

Ferns
Most Ferns delight in a loose soil, an abundance of moisture,and a warm, humid atmosphere. The stove and greenhouse kinds are best cultiva...

Ferns From Seed
Collect the spore-fronds towards the end of summer,just as the spore-cases begin to open. Place them on a sheet of paper in a box for a fe...

Ferraria
See "Tigridia."...

Ferula (giant Fennel)
Strong-growing, hardy, herbaceous plants.F. Gigantea has bright, glistening foliage, changing to a brilliant orange, and attains a height ...

Festuca
An annual ornamental grass, which is grown best on a loamysoil. Sow the seed in March, and keep moist till it germinates. Height, 1 ft. ...

Feverfew
This hardy perennial will grow in any soil and ripen itsseed freely. Young plants, obtained by sowing the seed early in spring, are very u...

Ficaria Grandiflora
A hardy perennial which thrives well whenplanted under the shade of trees. It is increased by separating the tubers in autumn, and produce...

Ficus Elastica (india-rubber Plant)
This thrives well in anylight, rich soil, or in loam and peat. Keep it moderately moist throughout the winter, using tepid water. In summe...

Fig Palm
See "Aralia."...

Figs
Though in some parts of our country Figs are cropped onstandards, as a rule they require to be trained on a wall having a southern exposur...

Filberts And Cob Nuts
These Nuts will succeed on any soil that isnot cold or wet. The bushes should be planted in October, when the leaves have nearly all falle...

Fire Thorn
See "Crataegus."...

Flea Bane
See "Inula" and "Stenactis."...

Flower-pots, Sizes Of
Various practices prevail at differentpotteries, but the appended names and sizes are generally adopted. In every case the inside measurem...

Foam Flower
See "Tiarella."...

Fontanesia Phillyraeoides
This shrub will grow in any soil, butneeds protection in severe weather. It may be propagated by layers or by cuttings planted under glass...

Forget-me-not
See "Myosotis."...

Forsythia
Any good soil suits these pretty shrubs. F. Suspensathrives best under greenhouse treatment, but F. Viridissima is quite hardy. The former...

Foxglove
See "Digitalis."...

Fragaria Indica (ornamental Strawberry)
A rich or peaty mouldsuits this half-hardy perennial. It may be saved through the winter by protecting the roots, but seed sown in spring ...

Francoa
Hardy perennials bearing white flowers from June toSeptember. They like a good, warm soil. The only way of raising them is from seed. They...

Fraxinella (dictamnus)
This ornamental hardy perennial is commonlyknown as the Burning Bush. It succeeds in any garden soil, and is easily raised from seed, whic...

Freesia
Remarkably pretty and graceful Cape flowers, possessing amost agreeable perfume. The plants grow about 9 in. high and produce six or eight...

Fremontia Californica
A beautiful and somewhat singular wall shrub,with large yellow flowers. Any soil is suitable for it, but a south or west aspect is indispe...

Fringe Tree
See "Chionanthus."...

Fritillarias (crown Imperials, Or Snake's Head Lilies)
Soil, sandyloam, or well-drained, deep, rich mould. Plant in the open ground in autumn; take the bulbs up as soon as the leaves decay, and...

Fruit Trees, The Pruning Of
Cut away all growths that have an inwardtendency, and do not allow any shoot to cross over or come in contact with another; also keep the ...

Fuchsias
These like a warm and moist atmosphere. The hardy sorts dowell out of doors in rich, light soil. On the approach of frost cut them down an...

Fumitory
See "Corydalis."...

Funkia
Ornamental plants which delight in a deep, light soil and awarm, moist situation, without which they will not flower. They are increased b...

Furze
Enjoys a sandy soil. Increased by cuttings taken in springor autumn and placed in a shady border under hand-glasses. It is of evergreen ha...

Gages
The cultivation of Gages is similar to that of Plums. In theopen they may be grown as dwarfs or pyramids, and in orchard-houses as gridiro...

Gaillardia (blanket Flower)
Very ornamental flowers, which willgrow in any common soil, but thrive most in a light, rich one. Seeds of the annual kinds are sown in th...

Galanthus
See "Snowdrops."...

Galax Aphylla (wand Plant)
The Heart-shaped Galax is a charminglittle plant for rock-work. It is perennial, and does not lose the old leaves till the new ones appear...

Galega (goats Rue)
Ornamental hardy perennials, requiring plentyof room. They are readily increased by seed or division of the root, and flower in July. Heig...

Galium
This hardy herbaceous plant blooms in July. It will grow inany soil, and can be increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft. ...

Gardenias
Plant in a hothouse in fibrous peat mixed with a largeproportion of sand. Give plenty of heat and moisture during growth, with a thin shad...

Garlic
Plant small cloves from February to April in rows 9 in. apartand 6 in. from each other in the row. Lift them when the leaves die down, dry...

Garrya Elliptica
A hardy evergreen shrub, which is very suitablein its early stages for pot-culture. A light, loamy soil is what it likes. Cuttings taken i...

Gasteria Verrucosa
This plant grows best in pots of turfy loam andleaf-mould, to which has been added a little old mortar. Good drainage is essential. Water ...

Gastrolobium
Elegant evergreen shrubs which flower in April and May.They are most suitable for adorning the greenhouse, and grow best in a soil of loam...

Gaultheria
Dwarf, creeping evergreen shrubs, having dark foliageand producing white flowers in May, June, or July. They require to be grown in peat, ...

Gaura Lindheimeri
This free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant willthrive in any light, rich soil. It bears elegant spikes of white flowers from May onwards...

Gazania Splendens
A showy greenhouse plant. It may be planted in theopen in warm positions, but will require protecting in winter. Grow it in peat and loam....

Genethyllis
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs which thrive best in sandyloam and peat. Cuttings of the young wood planted in the same soil and plunged in he...

Genista (broom)
G. Canariense is an exceedingly ornamental andfree-flowering greenhouse shrub. It should be planted in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. ...

Gentians
The herbaceous kinds do best in a light, rich soil, such asloam and peat mixed with vegetable mould. The annuals are raised from seed sown...

Geranium Argentium(silvery Crane's-bill)
This hardy perennialalpine is very effective on rock-work, especially in front of dark stones; but provision must be made for its long tap...

Geraniums
Take cuttings in July or August, and let them he topartially dry for twenty-four hours before planting. When rooted pot them off in 60's, ...

Gerardia
These hardy perennials form pyramidal bushes bearingPentstemon-like flowers, thickly set and varying in colour from light pink to dark pur...

German Seeds
These require to be sown in a cold frame in seed-pans,in the greenhouse, or under a handglass, in good, rich compost, composed of old turf...

Gesneria
Handsome greenhouse perennials. They thrive in any light,rich soil. Cuttings will strike readily either in sand or soil if placed under gl...

Geum
Very handsome hardy perennials. They grow well in any light,rich, loamy soil, and may be increased either by seeds or by dividing the root...

Gherkins
Sow the seed the first week in April in small pots, andcover it lightly with fine soil. Plunge the pots in a hotbed covered with a frame. ...

Gilia
Extremely pretty and free-flowering hardy annuals, deservingof a place in every garden. They are very suitable for small beds. They should...

Gillenia Trifoliata
The Three-Leaved Gillenia is a hardy herbaceousperennial which is very useful as a cut flower for the decoration of vases, etc. It should ...

Gladiolus
Dig the ground out to a depth of 1 ft. or 15 in.; put ina layer of leaf-mould or rotted manure, and then 4 or 5 in. of earth mixed with sa...

Glaucium Flavum Tricolor (hardy Horn Poppy)
The large, brilliant,orange-red flowers of this plant are very effective in the border, and the bloom is continuous during the greater par...

Glaux Maritima (sea Milkweed)
A pretty little hardy trailing plantbearing flesh-coloured flowers in June and July. It grows in sandy loam, and is raised from seed sown ...

Globe Amaranthus (gomphrena)
This tender annual is well known forits clover-like heads of everlasting flowers. It will grow in any rich soil, but to produce really fin...

Globe Flower
See "Trollius."...

Globe Thistle
See "Echinops."...

Globularia Trichosantha
A pretty dwarf perennial rock-plant bearingpale blue flowers in May and June. It is hardy, thrives in light, sandy soil, and is increased ...

Glory Of The Snow
See "Chionodoxa."...

Gloxinias
A very ornamental family of tuberous-rooted hothouseplants. They are of two classes, the drooping and the erect. Pot at any time during Ja...

Glycine
See "Wistaria" and "Apios."...

Gnaphalium (edelweiss)
Hardy everlasting flowers, which arecovered with a woolly substance. They may be grown in any light, rich soil. The shrubby and herbaceous...

Goat's Rue
See "Galega."...

Godetia
Very pretty hardy annuals, that may be grown in any gardensoil. Sow in the autumn for early flowering, or in spring for later blooms. July...

Golden Feather
Hardy annual foliage plants. They are not particularas to soil, and are easily raised from seed sown early in spring. They bloom in July. ...

Golden Rod
See "Solidago."...

Gompholobium
Delicate greenhouse evergreen shrubs requiring a soilof sandy loam and peat and but little water. They flower in June, and are propagated ...

Gomphrena
See "Globe Amaranthus."...

Gooseberries
From the middle of October to the end of November isthe best time for planting. To produce good crops the soil should be rich, deep, and w...

Gooseberry Caterpillar
To prevent caterpillars attackingGooseberries syringe the bushes with a decoction of common foxglove (Digitalis), or dust the leaves with ...

Gorse
See "Ulex."...

Gourds
Sow at the end of March or the beginning of April on aslight hotbed; pot off when the plants are sufficiently advanced, and transplant to ...

Grafting
The objects of Grafting are to bring a bush or tree into anearlier state of bearing than it would do naturally; to produce good fruit from...

Grafting Wax (cobbetts), Etc
Pitch and resin four parts each,beeswax two parts, tallow one part. Melt and mix the ingredients, and use when just warm. It may be rolled...

Grapes
The cultivation of Grapes in the open in our cloudy andchangeable climate cannot be looked forward to with any certainty of success. Two s...

Agrostis Stolonifera (creeping Bent Grass)
Useful for dampmeadows. ...

Alopecurus Pratensis (meadow Foxtail)
Strong-growing and verynutritious. ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM (True Sweet Vernal),--Hardy and gives fragrance to hay. ...

Avena Flavescens (yellow Oat Grass)
Fine for sheep; grows freelyon light soils. ...

Cynosurus Cristatus (crested Dogstail)
Suitable for any soil....

Dactylis Glomerata (cocksfoot)
Strong and coarse-growing; cattleare fond of it. ...

Festuca Duriuscula (hard Fescue)
Dwarf-growing; excellent forsheep. ...

Festuca Elatior (tall Fescue)
Useful for cold, strong soils....

Festuca Ovina (sheep's Fescue)
Fine for dry, sandy soils....

Festuca Ovina Tenuifolia (slender Fescue)
Suitable for mountainpastures. ...

Festuca Pratensis (meadow Fescue)
Good permanent grass for rich,moist soil. ...

Phleum Pratense (timothy, Or Catstail)
Suitable for strongsoils; nutritious and hardy. ...

Poa Nemoralis (wood Meadow Grass)
Good for poor soils....

Poa Pratensis (smooth-stalked Meadow Grass)
Grows well on light,dry soil, and also in water-meadows. ...

Poa Trivialis (rough-stalked Meadow Grass)
Fine for damp soil....

Grasses, Ornamental
Fine for mixing in a green state with cutflowers, or in a dried condition for the decoration of vases, winter bouquets, etc. To have them ...

Gratiola Officinalis
This hardy herbaceous plant bears light blueflowers in July. A rich, moist soil is its delight. It is propagated by dividing the roots. He...

Green Fly
Fumigate the infected plants with tobacco, and afterwardssyringe them with clear water; or the plants may be washed with tobacco water by ...

Grevillea
Handsome greenhouse shrubs, which require a mould composedof equal parts of peat, sand, and loam. Give plenty of water in summer, a modera...

Griselinia Littoralis
A dwarf-growing, light-coloured evergreenshrub, which will thrive near the sea. It requires a light, dry soil, and may be increased by cut...

Guelder Rose
See "Viburnum."...

Guernsey Lily (nerine Sarniense)
Soil, strong, rich loam withsand, well drained. Plant the bulbs deeply in a warm, sheltered position, and let them remain undisturbed year...

Gumming Of Trees
Scrape the gum off, wash the place thoroughly withclear water, and apply a compost of horse-dung, clay, and tar. ...

Gunnera Manicata (chilian Rhubarb)
This hardy plant bears largeleaves on stout foot-stalks, and is very ornamental in the backs of borders, etc. Planted in a rich, moist soi...

Gunnera Scabra
Has gigantic leaves, 4 to 5 ft. in diameter, onpetioles 3 to 6 ft. in length. It prefers a moist, shady position, and bears division. Make...

Gynerium (pampas Grass)
This unquestionably is the grandest of allgrasses, and is sufficiently hardy to endure most of our winters. It is, however, desirable to g...

Gypsophila
Of value for table bouquets, etc. They will grow in anysoil, but prefer a chalky one. The herbaceous kinds are increased by cuttings; the ...

Habrothamnus
These beautiful evergreen shrubs require greenhouseculture, and to be grown in sandy loam and leaf-mould. The majority of them flower in s...

Halesia Tetraptera (snowdrop Tree)
This elegant shrub will grow inany soil, and may be propagated by cuttings of the roots or by layers. The pendent white flowers are produc...

Hamamelis (witch Hazel)
An ornamental shrub which will grow inordinary soil, but thrives best in a sandy one. It is increased by layers. May is its season for flo...

Harpalium Rigidum
A hardy perennial, producing very fine yellowflowers in the autumn. It will grow in any good garden soil, and may be propagated by seed so...

Hawkweed
See "Crepis" and "Hieracium."...

Heartsease
See "Pansies."...

Heaths, Greenhouse
For their successful growth Heaths require awell-drained soil, composed of three parts finely pulverised peat and one part silver sand, fr...

Hedera
See "Ivy."...

Hedychium Gardnerianum
A hothouse herbaceous plant, delighting in arich, light soil, plenty of room in the pots for the roots, and a good amount of sunshine. In ...

Hedysarum
Hardy perennials, requiring a light, rich soil, or loamand peat. They may be raised from seed, or increased by dividing the roots in sprin...

Heleniums
The Pumilum is a very pretty hardy perennial that may begrown in any soil, and increased by dividing the roots. It produces its golden flo...

Helianthemum Alpinum (rock Roses)
These hardy perennials are bestgrown in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed under glass in a sheltered situation....

Helianthus (sunflowers)
The tall variety is a very stately plant,suitable for the background or a corner of the border. Well-grown flowers have measured 16 in. in...

Helichrysum
Fine everlasting hardy annuals, that grow best in amixture of three parts peat and one part sandy loam. May be readily raised from seed so...

Heliophila
Pretty little hardy annuals, thriving best in sandy loamand peat. Sow the seed early in spring in pots placed in a gentle hotbed, and plan...

Heliopsis
This hardy perennial is useful for cutting purposes, theflowers being borne on long stalks, and lasting for two or three weeks in water. I...

Heliotrope
Commonly called Cherry Pie. Sow the seed early in springin light, rich soil in a little heat, and plant out in May. The best plants, howev...

Helipterium
A half-hardy annual, bearing everlasting flowers. Itshould receive the same treatment as Helichrysum. Blooms in May or June. Height, 2 ft....

Helleborus (christmas Rose)
As its name implies, the Helleboreflowers about Christmas, and that without any protection whatever. The foliage is evergreen, and of a da...

Helonias Bullata
A pretty herbaceous plant, bearing dense racemes ofpurple-rose flowers from June to August. It grows best in peat, in a moist position. It...

Hemerocallis (day Lily)
Old-fashioned plants of great merit.Planted in large clumps they produce a grand effect. They are easily grown in any common garden soil, ...

Hemp
See "Canna" and "Cannabis."...

Hepatica
This enjoys a rather light, sandy soil and a shadysituation. The roots should be taken up and divided every second year. Well adapted for ...

Heracleum
Coarse hardy biennials, that may be grown in any kind ofsoil, and are readily raised from seed. They flower at midsummer. Height, 2 ft. to...

Herbs
Thyme, Marjoram, Chervil, Basil, Burnet, Hyssop, Savory, etc.,should be sown early in spring, in dry, mild weather, in narrow drills about...

Herbs, The Uses Of Sweet And Pot
...

Angelica
A biennial. Leaves and stalks are eaten raw or boiled;the seeds are aromatic, and used to flavour spirits. ...

Anise
Leaves used for garnishing, and for seasoning, like fennel;the seeds are medicinal. ...

Balm
A hardy perennial. Makes a useful tea and wine for fevers....

Basil, Sweet And Bush
Half-hardy annuals. The leaves and topsof the shoots, on account of their clove-like flavour, are used for seasoning soups and introduced ...

Borage
Hardy annual. Used for salads and garnishing, and as aningredient in cool drinks; excellent also for bees. ...

Chamomile
A hardy perennial. Flowers used medicinally....

Caraway
A biennial. Leaves used in soups, and the seeds inconfectionery and medicine. ...

Chervil
An annual. Useful for salads....

Chives
Hardy perennial. The young tops used to flavour soups, etc....

Coriander
A hardy annual. Cultivated for garnishing....

Dill
A hardy perennial. Leaves used in soups and sauces, also inpickles. ...

Fennel
Hardy perennial. Used in salads and in fish sauce, also forgarnishing dishes. ...

Horehound
Hardy perennial. Leaves and young shoots used for makinga beverage for coughs. ...

Hyssop
Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves and young shoots used formaking tea; also as a pot herb. ...

Lavender
Hardy perennial. Cultivated for its flowers, for thedistillation of lavender water, for flavouring sauces, and for medicinal purposes. ...

Marigold, Pot
Hardy annual. Flowers used in soups....

Marjoram, Sweet Or Knotted, And Pot
Hardy annuals. Aromatic andsweet flavour. Used for stuffings and as a pot herb; leaves dried for winter use. ...

Rampion
Hardy perennial. Roots used as a radish; they have a nuttyflavour. ...

Rosemary
Hardy ornamental shrub. Sprigs used for garnishing andthe leaves in drink. ...

Rue
Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves used for medicinal drinks;useful for poultry with croup. ...

Sage
Hardy perennial. Decoction of leaves drank as tea; used alsofor stuffing, meats, and sauces. ...

Savory, Summer
Hardy annual. Used for flavouring soups and salads....

Savory, Winter
Hardy evergreen shrub. Its aromatic flavour makesit valuable as a pot herb. ...

Scurvy Grass
The small leaves are eaten as watercress....

Skirret
Hardy perennial. Sweet, white, and pleasant; the tubersare boiled and served up with butter. ...

Sorrel, Broad-leaved
Hardy perennial. Imparts an acid flavour tosalads and soups. ...

Thyme, Broad-leaved
Hardy perennial. Young leaves and tops usedfor stuffing, also in soups and sauces. ...

Tarragon
Hardy perennial. For flavouring vinegar; also used insalads, soups, and pickles. ...

Wormwood
A hardy shrub. Beneficial to horses and poultry, and isused for medical purposes. ...

Herniaria Glabra
These dwarf carpeting plants are of easy culture.Grow from seed in spring and transplant into sandy soil. Height, 1-1/2 in. ...

Hesperis
See "Rocket."...

Heuchera
Very neat, but not showy, hardy American perennials. Theymay be grown in any ordinary light garden soil, are increased by dividing the roo...

Hibbertia Dentata
An evergreen twining plant, requiring a greenhousefor its cultivation and a soil of sandy loam and peat. It flowers in July, and is increa...

Hibiscus Africanus
A handsome hardy annual Mallow. Sow in Marchin slight heat, and plant out in May 10 in. apart. Grows best in a mixture of loam and peat. B...

Hibiscus Syriacus (rose Of Sharon)
A hardy, deciduous,autumn-flowering shrub, which will grow in common soil, and may be propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings planted und...

Hieracium (hawkweed)
A free-growing hardy perennial, suitable fora sunny bank or border. It is not particular as to soil. From June to September it produces or...

Hippeastrums
See "Amaryllis."...

Hippocrepis
Very pretty hardy trailing perennials, covered from Mayto July with golden Pea-shaped flowers. They will grow in any light, sandy soil, an...

Hippophae
Ornamental shrubs, thriving in ordinary soil, andincreased by layers or cuttings of the roots. H. Rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn) flowers in Ma...

Holboellia Latifolia
See "Stauntonia Latifolia."...

Holly (ilex)
This pleasing hardy evergreen shrub thrives best ona deep, sandy loam, but will grow in any good soil, provided the position is dry. It su...

Hollyhock
May be raised from seed or cuttings. Sow the seed aboutthe second week of March in very rich soil, and cover it with 1 in. of dry earth. I...

Homerias
Beautiful little South African plants. For out-doorcultivation plant the bulbs in a dry, warm situation, from October to January, 3 in. de...

Homogyne Alpina
Hardy herbaceous plants flowering in April. Any soilis suitable for them, and they may be increased by division. Height, 6 in. ...

Honesty (lunaria)
Interesting hardy biennials. When dried, theshining seed-pods make a handsome addition to winter bouquets, mixed with ornamental grass. An...

Honeysuckles
These rapid twiners thrive in any loamy soil, and maybe increased by putting down layers in the autumn, after the leaves begin to fall. Th...

Hop
A useful hardy climber for covering verandahs, summer-houses,etc. Plant in rich, loamy soil, and increase by dividing the roots. (See also...

Hordeum Jubatum (squirrel-tail Grass)
A very pretty speciesresembling miniature barley. Sow seed in March, covering it very lightly, and keep the surface of the soil moist till...

Horminum Pyrenaicum
This hardy perennial produces erect whiteflowers with blue corolla in June or July. It will grow in any ordinary soil, but needs protectio...

Horn Poppy
See "Glaucium."...

Horseradish
Plant in October or February in deep, rich soil; or itmay be grown on a heap of cinder-ashes, or on any light ground through which the roo...

Hotbeds, To Make
Take dead leaves and stable-straw, with the dung,in the proportion of two double loads for a three-light frame. Turn it over four or five ...

Houseleek
See "Sempervivum."...

Houstonia Coerulea
These hardy little evergreens are more generallyknown as Bluets. They make charming ornaments for rock-work, planted between large stones,...

Hovea Celsi
A greenhouse shrub, which is evergreen and elegant whenin flower in June. A sandy loam and peat soil is most suitable, and it may be incre...

Humea
A remarkably handsome and graceful plant, the leaves of whichwhen slightly bruised yield a strong odour. It is equally suitable for the ce...

Humulus Japonicus
(Japanese Hop).--A hardy annual Hop of rapidgrowth, the leaves of which are splashed with white. Useful for covering arbours, verandahs, e...

Hutchinsia Alpina
This small alpine creeper is a profuse bloomer,its glistening white flowers being produced at all seasons. It grows in moist vegetable mou...

Hyacinths
May be grown in pots, in glasses, or in beds and borders.The soil should be rich and light. Good loam mixed with old manure and a little l...

Hyacinthus (muscari)
A very hardy race of spring-flowering bulbs.Though the varieties are very dissimilar in appearance, they all produce a good effect, especi...

Hyacinth)
Very pretty and hardy, bearing fine spikes of deep,rich blue flowers in compact clusters on a stem 6 to 9 in. high. Sweet-scented, and blo...

Candicans (galtonia)
The white Cape Hyacinth, or Spire Lily.A hardy, summer-flowering, bulbous plant 3 ft. to 4 ft. in height, gracefully surmounted with from ...

Moschatus (musk Hyacinth)
Bears very fragrant purplish flowers....

Plvmosum (feather Hyacinth)
A fine, hardy, dwarf plant suitablefor any soil. Its massive sprays of fine blue flowers, arranged in curious clusters, 5 to 6 in. in leng...

Racemosum (starch Hyacinth)
Rich dark-blue or reddish-purpleflowers. Very free-flowering and fine for massing. It is similar to the Cape Hyacinth, but flowers in dens...

Hydrangea
This shrub delights in a moist, sheltered position andrich soil. It may be increased at any time from cuttings of the young side-shoots, 2...

Hymenanthera Crassifolia
Ornamental evergreen shrubs, thriving bestin a compost of loam and peat. They are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to a...

Hymenoxys
Pretty little hardy annuals that may be easily raisedfrom seed sown early in March in any garden soil. They bloom in June. Height, 1 ft. ...

Hypericum (st. John's Wort)
Favourite dwarf shrubs. Any soil suitsthe hardy kinds, but they prefer shade and moisture. These may be increased by seed or division. The...

Iberis
See "Candytuft."...

Ice Plants
See "Mesembryanthemum."...

Ilex
See "Holly."...

Impatiens Sultani
Half-hardy perennials. May be raised from seedsown early in spring on a hotbed, or later on in a shady spot in the open border; greenhouse...

Incarvilleas
Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, of easy culture.They are suitable for the border or the rockery, and will grow in any soil if not too ...

Indian Corn
See "Zea."...

Indian Shot
See "Canna."...

India-rubber Plants
See "Ficus."...

Indigofera
Beautiful evergreen shrubs. I. Australis has elegant,fern-like foliage and racemes of pink or purple Pea-shaped flowers in April. I. Decor...

Insects On Plants
To destroy insects on plants wash the plant withTobacco-Water (which see). Or put 1 oz. of quassia chips in a muslin bag, pour on some boi...

Inula Royleana (fleabane)
A hardy perennial which flowers inNovember. It will grow in any garden soil, and can be increased by seeds, or by division of the roots. H...

Ionopsidium
These hardy annuals grow freely in any rich, damp soil;a shady position is indispensable. Height, 1/8 ft. ...

Ipomoea
These beautiful climbing plants are very suitable forcovering trellis-work, or for the pillars or rafters of the stove-house. The seed is ...

Ipomopsis
A very beautiful half-hardy biennial, but difficult tocultivate. Some gardeners steep the seed in hot water before sowing it; but the best...

Iresines
Take cuttings of these greenhouse plants in autumn; insertthem thinly in 48-size pots filled with coarse sand, loam, and leaf-mould, and p...

Iris
The Iris is the orchid of the flower garden; its blossoms arethe most rich and varied in colour of hardy plants. For cutting, for vases, t...

Ivy (hedera)
A deep, rich soil suits the common Ivy; the moretender kinds require a lighter mould. To increase them, plant slips in a north border in s...

Ixias
Plant out of doors from September to December, in asunny, sheltered position, in light, rich, sandy soil. For indoor cultivation, plant fo...

Jacobaea (ragwort)
May be raised from cuttings in the same way asVerbenas, and will grow freely from seeds sown in autumn or spring. It delights in a rich, l...

Jacob's Ladder
See "Polemonium."...

Jasione Perennis (sheep Scabious)
A hardy perennial which producesa profusion of heads of blue flowers in June, and continues to bloom till August. It enjoys a peat soil, a...

Jasminum
These are favourite plants for training over arbours ortrellis-work, and for growing against walls. The hardy kinds will flourish in ordin...

Job's Tears
See "Coix Lachryma."...

Jonquils
These are quite hardy, and may be grown in the open in thesame manner as Hyacinths. Five or six bulbs in a 5-in. pot make a very pretty bo...

Joss Flower
See "Chinese Sacred Narcissus."...

Juniper (juniperus)
These useful conifers prefer dry chalk orsandy soils, but will thrive in any ground that is not too heavy. J. Japonica, Sabina, and Tamari...

Kadsura Japonica
This is a beautiful creeper for a south or westaspect. It thrives best in loam and sandy peat. Cuttings may be struck in sand, placed unde...

Kale
See "Borecole."...

Kalmia Latifolia
This hardy, dwarf evergreen shrub is deservedly agreat favourite. It produces a wealth of flowers in large clusters. It requires to be gro...

Kalosanthes
Showy greenhouse succulent plants. A light, turfy loamis suitable for them, and they may be increased by placing cuttings of the young sho...

Kaulfussia
Sow this pretty hardy annual in April in the open border,or in March in slight heat. It may also be sown in autumn for early flowering. It...

Kennedya Marryattae
A greenhouse evergreen twining plant of a verybeautiful order, which thrives best in a compost of sandy loam and peat. Cuttings of the you...

Kerria (corchorus)
Beautiful hardy shrubs, which may be grown inany garden soil, and can be propagated by cuttings of the young wood, taken at a joint, and p...

Koelreuteria Paniculata
This is an ornamental tree bearing longspikes of yellow flowers in July. It will grow in any soil, but requires a sheltered position, and ...

Kohl Rabi (turnip-rooted Cabbage)
Though mostly grown as a farmcrop, this vegetable is strongly recommended for garden cultivation, as it is both productive and nutritious,...

Lachenalia. (cape Cowslips)
Charming greenhouse plants for potor basket culture. Pot in December in a compost of fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and sand; place as near the...

Lactuca Sonchifolia. (sow Thistle-leaved Lettuce)
An ornamental,but not handsome, hardy perennial, with leaves 1 ft. in length and 9 in. in breadth. It is of neat habit and enjoys the suns...

Ladies' Slipper Orchid
See "Cypripedium."...

Lady's Mantle
See "Alchemilla."...

Lagurus Ovatus
This hardy annual is commonly known as Hare's-TailGrass. It is distinctly ornamental, producing elegant egg-shaped tufts of a silvery-whit...

Lallemantia Canescens
Bees are very fond of this blue hardy annual,which may readily be grown from seed sown in the spring. Height, 1 ft. ...

Lamium
These plants are mostly of a hardy herbaceous description andof little value. They will grow well in any kind of soil, flowering from Marc...

Lantana
These dwarf, bushy, half-hardy perennial shrubs bearVerbena-like blossoms. They like a dry and warm situation and rich, light soil. The se...

Lapageria Rosea
A beautiful climbing plant which bears largerose-coloured flowers in May. It can be grown in any light, rich soil, but a compost of leaf-m...

Lardizabala Biternata
This climbing shrub has fine ornamentalfoliage. It is most suitable for a south or west aspect, where it proves hardy; in other positions ...

Larkspur
The Stock-flowered Larkspur is of the same habit as theDutch Rocket, but has longer spikes and larger and more double flowers. The Hyacint...

Lasiandra
Stove evergreen shrubs, flourishing best in a mixture ofequal parts of loam, peat, and sand. They are propagated by cuttings of the young ...

Lasthenia
A hardy annual of a rather pretty nature, suitable forflower-beds or borders. Autumn is the best time for sowing the seed, but it may also...

Lathyrus
Handsome plants when in flower, the larger kinds being welladapted as backgrounds to other plants in the shrubbery, where they will requir...

Laurel
Laurels will grow in any good garden soil. They are grownboth as bushes and standards, and require but little attention beyond watering. T...

Laurestinus
See "Viburnum Tinus."...

Laurus
See "Bay, Sweet."...

Lavatera
The greenhouse and frame kinds grow in any light soil, andare increased by cuttings of the ripened wood, under glass. The hardy herbaceous...

Lavender (lavandula Spied)
A hardy shrub whose sweetly-scentedflowers, which are produced in August, are much prized. A dry, gravelly soil is what it likes best. You...

Lawns, Shrubs For
See "Shrubs for Lawns."...

Layering
See under "Carnations."...

Ledum (labrador Tea)
Low-growing American evergreen shrubs,thriving best in sandy peat, and may be increased by layers. ...

Leek
Sow early in March, and prick out the plants in rich soil, in asheltered position, to strengthen. As soon as they are large enough, plant ...

Leontopodium
Hardy perennials, succeeding best in peat soil. Theyare most suitable for rock-work, and may be increased by seed or division of the roots...

Leopard's Bane
See "Doronicum."...

Leptosiphon
Charming hardy annuals which make nice pot-plants. Theseed should be sown in rich, light soil--peat for preference. If this is done in aut...

Leptospermum
Neat greenhouse evergreen shrubs, most at home in equalportions of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. They ...

Leschenaultia
Elegant greenhouse shrubs, delighting in a mixture ofturfy loam, peat, and sand. They are evergreen, flower in June, and are propagated by...

Lettuce
Sow early in February on a slight hotbed, and prick out intoa well-manured and warm border, having the soil broken down fine on the surfac...

Leucanthemum (hardy Marguerites)
Same treatment as Chrysanthemum....

Leucojum (snowflake)
Also known as St. Agnes' Flower. Handsomeplants. The flowers are pure white, every petal being tipped with green, dropping in a cluster of...

Leucophyton Browni
A popular white-foliaged bedding plant, which maybe increased by dibbling cuttings in sandy soil and placing them in a cool frame. ...

Lewisia Rediviva
This makes a pretty rock-plant. It is a perennialand quite hardy, but requires plenty of sun. During April and May it produces large flowe...

Leycesteria Formosa
Ornamental plants, the flowers resembling Hopsof a purple colour. They will grow in any soil, but need protection in winter. They are mult...

Liatris Pycnostachya
A curious old herbaceous perennial, now seldommet with, sending up late in summer a dense cylindrical purple spike 2 ft. high. It needs a ...

Libertia Formosa
The narrow foliage and spikes of pure whiteflowers, produced in May and June, render this hardy perennial very ornamental. The soil should...

Libonia Floribunda
This is a winter-flowering plant, and is easilygrown in a cool greenhouse. It is very useful for table decoration, its slender red and yel...

Lilium
The Lily is admirably adapted for pot culture, theconservatory, and the flower border, and will flourish in any light soil or situation. T...

Lily Of The Valley
Set the roots in bunches 1 ft. apart, and beforesevere weather sets in cover them with a dressing of well-rotted manure. They should not b...

Limnanthes Douglasii
Very elegant and beautiful hardy annuals,which are slightly fragrant. They must be grown in a moist and shady situation. The seeds ripen f...

Linaria
These all do best in a light, sandy loam, and make goodplants for rock-work. L. Bipartita is suitable for an autumn sowing. The other annu...

Linnaea Borealis
A rare, native, evergreen creeping perennial.From July to September it bears pale pink flowers; it makes a pretty pot-plant, and also does...

Linum (flax)
This succeeds best in rich, light mould. The LinumFlavum, or Golden Flax, is very suitable for pot culture; it grows 9 in. in height, and ...

Lippia Reptans
A frame creeping perennial which flowers in June. Itrequires a light soil. Cuttings of the young wood may be struck under glass. Height, 1...

Lithospermum Prostratum
A hardy perennial, evergreen trailer,needing no special culture, and adapting itself to any soil. It is increased by cuttings of the previ...

Loasa
The flowers are both beautiful and curiously formed, but theplants have a stinging property. They grow well in any loamy soil, and are eas...

Lobelia
These effective plants may be raised from seed sown inJanuary or February in fine soil. Sprinkle a little silver sand or very fine mould o...

Lobels Catchfly
See "Silene."...

London Pride
See "Saxifrage."...

Lonicera
Hardy deciduous shrubs, which will grow in any ordinarysoil, and produce their flowers in April or May. They are propagated by cuttings pl...

Lophospermum
Very elegant half-hardy climbers. Planted against awall in the open air, or at the bottom of trellis-work, they will flower abundantly in ...

Love Apples
See "Tomatoes."...

Love Grass
See "Eragrostis."...

Love-in-a-mist
See "Nigella."...

Love-lies-bleeding (amaranthus Caudatus)
A hardy annual bearinggraceful drooping racemes of crimson blossom. The seed should be sown in the open at the end of March, and thinned o...

Luculia Gratissima
A fine plant either for the wall or border. Itgrows well in a compost of peat and light, turfy loam, but it is not suitable for pot cultur...

Lunaria
See "Honesty."...

Lupins
Though old-fashioned flowers, these still rank among our mostbeautiful annual and herbaceous border plants. They may be grown in any soil,...

Lychnis
Hardy perennials which, though rather straggling, deserveto be cultivated on account of the brilliancy of their flowers. L. Chalcedonica, ...

Lyre Flower
See "Dielytra."...

Lysimachia Clethroides
This hardy perennial has something of theappearance of a tall Speedwell. When in flower it is attractive, and as it blooms from July on to...

Lysimachia Nummularia (creeping Jenny)
This plant is extremelyhardy, and is eminently suitable either for rock-work or pots. It is of the easiest cultivation, and when once esta...

Lythrum
Very handsome hardy perennials which thrive in any gardensoil, and may be raised from seed or increased by dividing the roots. They flower...

Madia
A hardy annual of a rather handsome order. The seed should besown in May in a shady situation. The plant is not particular as to soil, and...

Magnolia Grandiflora
A handsome, hardy evergreen, with largeshining, Laurel-shaped leaves, and highly-scented, Tulip-shaped white flowers. A noble plant for a ...

Mahonia
Handsome evergreen shrubs, useful for covert planting or forgrouping with others. They grow best in a compost of sand, peat, and loam, and...

Maianthemum Bifolium
The flowers of this hardy perennial areproduced in April and May, and somewhat resemble miniature Lily of the Valley. Seed may be sown at ...

Maize
See "Zea."...

Malope
Very beautiful hardy annuals having soft leaves. They may beraised from seed sown in April in any garden soil. They bloom in June or July....

Malva
Very ornamental plants, more especially the greenhousevarieties. The hardy perennials succeed in any good garden soil, and are increased b...

Mandevillea Suaveolens
A fine climbing plant bearing very sweetwhite flowers in June. It is rather tender, and more suitable for the conservatory than the open a...

Manures
One of the best fertilisers of the soil is made bysaturating charred wood with urine. This may be drilled in with seeds in a dry state. Fo...

Maple
See "Acer."...

Marguerites (chrysanthemums Frutescens)
The White Paris Daisiesare very effective when placed against scarlet Geraniums or other brightly-coloured flowers, and likewise make fine...

Margyricarpus Setosus (bristly Pearl Fruit)
A charming littleevergreen, of procumbent growth, bearing throughout the whole summer a number of berries on the main branches. Being only...

Marigolds
Handsome and free-flowering half-hardy annuals. Thegreenhouse varieties thrive in a mixture of loam and peat, and cuttings root easily if ...

Martynia
Handsome half-hardy, fragrant annuals. The seed should besown on a hotbed in March. When the plants are sufficiently advanced transplant t...

Marvel Of Peru (mirabilis)
Half-hardy perennials, which are veryhandsome when in flower, and adorn equally the greenhouse or the open. They may be increased by seed ...

Massonia
Singular plants, which to grow to perfection should beplaced in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. They require no water while in a dorman...

Mathiola
See "Stocks."...

Mathiola Bicornis (night-scented Stocks)
A favourite hardy annualwhose lilac flowers are fragrant towards evening. They may be grown from seed sown between February and May on any...

Matricaria
This is a half-hardy annual of little interest so far asits flowers are concerned, and is mostly grown as a foliage plant. The seed should...

Maurandia Barclayana
This elegant twining plant is best grown inpots, so that it can more conveniently be taken indoors in the winter. The soil should be light...

Mazus Pumilio
A pretty diminutive herbaceous plant. When grown inpeat and sand in an open situation it survives from year to year, but it will not live ...

Meconopsis Cambrica(welsh Poppy)
An ornamental hardy perennial,often found on English rocks. It may be grown in any light, rich soil, is easily raised from seed, and bloom...

Medlars
These trees will grow on any well-drained soil. The DutchMedlar is most prized, as it bears the largest fruit. It is raised from seed, and...

Megasea
This hardy herbaceous plant flowers from April to June.A light, sandy soil suits it best. It may be grown from seed or multiplied by divis...

Melissa Officinalis
A hardy perennial, flowering in July. Any soilsuits it. It is increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft. ...

Melittis Melissophyllum (large-flowered Bastard Balm)
Thishandsome perennial is not often seen, but it deserves to be more generally grown, especially as it will thrive in almost any soil; but...

Melon
Sow from January to June in pots plunged in a hotbed, thetemperature of which should not be under 80 degrees. When the plants have made fo...

Menispermum Canadense (moon Seed)
A pretty slender-branched,hardy, climbing, deciduous shrub, with yellow flowers in June, followed with black berries. It grows in any soil...

Mentha Rotundifloria Variegata (variegated Mint)
A hardyperennial, which may be grown in any soil, and is easily increased by dividing the roots. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft. ...

Menyanthes
Treat as other hardy aquatics....

Menziesia (irish Heath)
This evergreen thrives best in fibrouspeat to which a fair quantity of silver sand has been added. While excessive moisture is injurious, ...

Mertensia
These hardy perennials flower from March to July. Theywill grow in any garden soil, but do best in peat, and are propagated by division. T...

Mesembryanthemums (ice Plants)
These half-hardy, annual succulentshave a bright green foliage covered with ice-like globules. They must be raised in a greenhouse or on a...

Mespilus
For treatment, see "Medlars."...

Meum Athamanticum
A hardy perennial with graceful, feathery greenfoliage, but of no special beauty. It is a native of our shores, will grow in any soil, blo...

Michaelmas Daisies (starworts)
A numerous family of hardyherbaceous perennials. Some few are very pretty, while others can only be ranked with wild flowers. They thrive ...

Michauxia Campanuloides
This is an attractive border biennial,bearing from March to June white campanula-like flowers tinged with purple, on erect stems. It is no...

Mignonette
For summer-flowering plants sow the seed in spring, andthin out to a distance of 9 in. apart. To obtain bloom during the winter and spring...

Mildew
Syringe with a strong decoction of green leaves and tenderbranches of the elder-tree, or with a solution of nitre made in the proportion o...

Milkmaid
See "Cardamine."...

Milk Thistle
See "Carduus."...

Mimosa
These shrubs are often called Sensitive Plants, on accountof the leaves of several of the species of this genus shrinking when touched. Th...

Mimulus (monkey Flower)
Showy half-hardy perennials which thrivein moist and shady situations and in almost any soil. They may be grown from seed sown in slight h...

Mina Lobata
A charming half-hardy annual climber, bearing singularlyshaped flowers, produced on long racemes. When young the buds are a vivid red, cha...

Mint
May be grown in any garden soil. It is increased by runners,which, if not held in check, become very troublesome. The roots may be confine...

Mistletoe
Raise the bark of an apple, pear, or oak tree on theunderneath part of a branch and insert some well-ripened berries, then tie the bark do...

Mitella Diphylla
A hardy perennial which bears slender racemes ofwhite flowers in April. It makes a pretty rock plant, delights in a peat soil, and is incr...

Moles
These pests may be destroyed by placing in their runs wormsthat have been kept for some time in mould to which carbonate of barytes has be...

Monardia Didyma (oswego Mint, Or Horse Balm)
See "Bergamot."...

Monetia Barlerioides
An ornamental shrub, suitable for thegreenhouse or stove. It requires to be grown in loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings plant...

Monkey Flower
See "Mimulus."...

Monkey Puzzle
See "Araucaria."...

Monk's-hood
See "Aconite."...

Montbretia
Very graceful and showy plants. The flowers, which arelike small Gladioli, are produced on long branched spikes and are excellent for cutt...

Moraea Iridioides
These plants flower in May, and require the sametreatment as Ixias. ...

Morina (whorl Flower)
An ornamental hardy perennial, which isseldom met with. It forms rosettes of large, deep green, shiny foliage and stout spikes of rose-col...

Morisia Hypogaea
This is a pretty hardy perennial for rock-work. Itflowers in May, and is raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe. Height, 2 in. ...

Morna Elegans
Beautiful half-hardy annuals. For early flowering sowthe seed in September: for later blooms sow in February in slight heat, pot off, affo...

Morning Glory
See "Convolvulus."...

Morrenia Odorata
A good twining plant for the greenhouse, producingfragrant cream-coloured flowers in July. It will grow in any good loamy soil, and may be...

Moss
To eradicate moss from fruit-trees wash the branches withstrong brine or lime water. If it makes its appearance on the lawn, the first thi...

Mountain Avens
See "Dryas."...

Muhlenbeckia Complexa
A very decorative climber, hardy in nature butrequiring a good amount of sunshine to make it bloom. A well-drained, sandy soil is best for...

Mulberries
Any good soil will grow the Mulberry. The tree is hardy,but the fruit wants plenty of sunshine to bring it to perfection. It may be propag...

Mulching
See "Soil."...

Muscari
See "Hyacinthus."...

Muscari Botryoides
See "Hyacinthus."...

Mushrooms
Take partially dry horse manure and lay it in a heapto ferment. Turn and mix it well every few days, and when well and equally fermented, ...

Musk (mimulus Moschatus)
A well-known sweet-scented, half-hardyperennial, well adapted for pot culture. A moist, shady position is most congenial to it when placed...

Mustard And Cress
For sowing in the open choose a shady border, makethe surface fine and firm, and water it well before putting down the seed. Let the seed ...

Myosotis (forget-me-not)
The perennial varieties of thesebeautiful plants grow best in moist places, such as the edges of ponds or ditches; but they also do well i...

Myrica Gala (candleberry Myrtle)
This hardy deciduous shrub isvery ornamental, and its foliage is scented like the myrtle. It will grow in light, rich soil, but thrives be...

Myrsiphyllum Asparagoides
See "Smilax."...

Myrtle (myrtus)
Will strike readily if the cuttings be placed in abottle of water till roots grow, and then planted; or young cuttings will strike in sand...

Narcissus
See "Daffodils."...

Nasturtiums
These are among the most useful of our hardy annuals,producing a display of the brightest of colours throughout the entire summer. The tal...

Nectarines
Require the same treatment as the Peach. In fact, theNectarine stone sometimes produces a Peach, and a Peach stone often produces a Nectar...

Neilla
These shrubs thrive in ordinary soil, and are increased bycuttings of the young wood. They flower in July. N. Torreyi bears white Spiraea-...

Nemesia
A most beautiful half-hardy annual of the Antirrhinum class.Sow the seed early in spring on a hotbed, and plant out in May in rich, light ...

Nemophila
Pretty, neat, and compact hardy annuals, well worthcultivating. They succeed best in a moist and shady situation, delight in peat or veget...

Nepeta Glechoma Variegata
A very useful plant for hanging baskets.It can be trained as a pyramid or allowed to hang down; in many cases it is employed as edgings. I...

Nerine Sarniense
See "Guernsey Lily."...

Nertera Depressa (coral Berry)
This pretty Moss-like plant isfairly hardy, and is eminently suited for a sheltered position on the rockery. The soil should consist of le...

Neuvusia Alabamensis
A tamarix-like shrub, bearing clusters of whiteflowers early in spring. Will grow in any soil or situation. Increased by cuttings placed i...

Nicotiana (tobacco Plants)
Very showy half-hardy annuals. N.Affinis bears long, tubular, sweet-scented, white flowers in July, and grows to the height of 3 ft. N. Vi...

Nierembergia (cup Flowers)
These elegant half-hardy annualsgrow well in any light soil, but prefer a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould. Sow the seed in March or A...

Nierembergia Rivularis
This herbaceous plant is of a creepingnature; it has deep green ovate foliage and large saucer-shaped white flowers. It needs a moist posi...

Nigella
These hardy annuals, a species of Fennel-flower, are bothcurious and ornamental. Perhaps the best known among them is N. Hispanica, or Lov...

Night-scented Stocks
See "Mathiola."...

Nolana
Hardy annuals that are suitable for the border, as they arevery showy when in flower. The seed should be sown in spring on a gentle hotbed...

North Borders, Plants Suitable For
Hardy Camellias, Chrysanthemums,black and green Tea Plant, Rhododendrons, Ferns, Red Currants, Morello Cherries, and spring and summer cut...

Nuttallia
This early-flowering shrub is only hardy in the south andsouth-west of our country. It requires a light, rich soil, and may be increased b...

Nycterina
Exquisite little half-hardy plants, suitable for pots orrock-work. The seed should be sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed, and the you...

Nymphaea Alba
A hardy aquatic perennial, frequently found in ourponds. It flowers in June, and may be increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft. O ...

Odontoglossum Grande
A most beautiful orchid, delighting in atemperature of from 60 to 70 degrees and an abundance of water during summer, but good drainage is...

Oenothera
The Evening Primroses are most useful and beautifulplants, well suited for ornamenting borders, beds, edgings, or rock-work. All the speci...

Olearia
These evergreen shrubs thrive in peat and loam, and may beincreased by division of the roots. O. Haastii has foliage resembling the Box, a...

Omphalodes Verna
A hardy perennial which may be grown under theshade of trees in ordinary soil. It produces its flowers in March, and is increased by divid...

Oncidium Sarcodes
Plant these Orchids firmly in well-drained pots,using equal parts of live sphagnum and fibrous peat. Give one good watering as soon as the...

Onions
Require a deep, rich, heavy soil. Where the ground is notsuitable it should have had a good dressing of rotten manure the previous autumn,...

Ononis Rotundifolia (round-leaved Restharrow)
A charming hardyevergreen of a shrubby nature. It will grow in any ordinary garden soil, and is increased by seed, sown as soon as it is r...

Onopordon
Half-hardy perennials of a rather interesting nature andof easy cultivation. Sow the seed any time between March and June. They require th...

Onosma Taurica (golden Drop)
This hardy herbaceous plant is verypretty when in flower, and suitable for rock-work. It requires a well-drained vegetable mould, and to b...

Opuntia Rafinesquii (hardy Prickly Fig)
A dwarf hardy Cactus withsulphur-coloured flowers, produced from June to August; very suitable for dry spots in rock-work. It grows best i...

Orange, Mexican
See "Choisya."...

Orchids
The four classes into which these charming and interestingplants are divided may be described as (1) those coming from the tropics, (2) fr...

Origanum Pulchellum
Popularly known as the Beautiful Marjoram, thisplant is useful for cutting for vases. It is perennial and hardy, and thrives in a dry situ...

Ornithogalum
O. Arabicum bears a large white flower with a shinyblack centre. It is a fine plant for pot culture, or it may be grown in water like the ...

Orobus
These hardy perennials bear elegant Pea-shaped blossoms. Theplants will grow readily in any light soil, and are easily increased by root-d...

Osmanthus
These elegant hardy evergreen shrubs succeed best inlight, sandy loam, and like a dry situation. They may be increased by cuttings of the ...

Othera Japonica
A newly introduced evergreen shrub very similar tothe Holly. It is perfectly hardy and may be treated in the same manner as that plant. ...

Ourisia Coccinea
A hardy herbaceous, surface-creeping perennial ofsingular beauty as regards both leaf and flower. The soil in which it is grown must be we...

Oxalis
A genus of very pretty bulbous plants that thrive well in amixture of loam, peat, and sand, or will grow in any light soil. Most of the te...

Ox-tongue
See "Bugloss."...

Oxythopis Campestris
A hardy perennial with lemon-yellow flowers inJune and July. It will grow in any good garden soil, and is propagated by seed only, which s...

Pachysandra
This early hardy perennial has ornamental foliage andblooms in April. It will succeed in almost any soil, and may be increased by suckers ...

Paeonies
These beautiful flowering plants are mostly hardy enough toendure our winters. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing the plants a...

Palms From Seed
Soak the seed in tepid water for twenty-four hours,then put them singly 1 in. deep in 2-in. pots filled with equal parts of loam, leaf-mou...

Pampas Grass
See "Gynerium."...

Pampas Lily Of The Valley
See "Withania."...

Pancratium
A handsome class of plants. Their habit of growth issomewhat like that of the Amaryllis. They are admirably adapted for growing in pots in...

Pandanus Veitchi (variegated Screw Pine)
For table decoration orvases this is a most useful plant. It requires a warm greenhouse where a temperature of 60 or 70 degrees can be kep...

Panicum
Handsome ornamental grasses. They will grow in any soilor situation. P. Capillare is an annual, suitable for bouquets or edgings; it is in...

Pansies (heartsease)
Grow well from seed sown in July or August ona raised bed of light earth. They may also be increased from cuttings taken in August, Septem...

Papaver (poppy)
These showy flowers are most at home in a rich,light soil. They are easily raised from seed sown where they are intended to bloom. The per...

Pardanthus Chinensis
See "Iris."...

Parsley
In order to grow Parsley to perfection it is necessary thatthe ground be well drained, as the roots and stems must be kept dry, and the so...

Parsnips
These succeed best in a rich soil, but the application offresh manure should be avoided, as it induces forked and ill-shaped roots. Let th...

Passion Flower
Cuttings of the young shoots strike readily in sandunder glass. The plant likes a good loamy soil mixed with peat. A sheltered position wi...

Pavia Macrostachya
This is a deciduous hardy shrub or tree whichbears elegant racemes of white Chestnut-like flowers in July. Any soil suits it. It is propag...

Peaches
These are best grown on a strong loam mixed with old mortar;though any soil that is well drained will produce good fruit. When possible, a...

Pears
Wherever Apples are a success Pears will grow. As a rule, theyare best grown dwarf. On light soils they should be grafted on to Pear stock...

Peas
For the production of heavy summer and autumn crops a rich anddeeply-stirred soil is essential, one of the best fertilisers being well-dec...

Peas, Everlasting (lathyrus Latifolia)
These well-known andfavourite hardy perennials are very useful for covering trellises, etc. They will grow in any garden soil, and may be ...

Peas, Sweet
These most beautiful and profuse blooming hardy annualswill grow almost anywhere, but they prefer a dry soil that is both rich and light. ...

Pelargonium
The shrubby kinds will grow well in any rich soil; loamand decayed leaves form a good compost for them. They require good drainage and ple...

Pentstemon
This charming hardy perennial is deserving of a place inevery garden. It may be grown in any good soil, but a mixture of loam and peat is ...

Peppermint
This may be grown on any damp or marshy soil, andincreased by dividing the roots. ...

Perennials
These are plants that die down during the winter, butspring up and produce new stems annually. Some, as for instance Antirrhinums and Pans...

Pergularia
Very fragrant twining plants, suitable for trellis-work,arbours, etc. A rich soil suits them best. They are easily increased by cuttings s...

Perilla Nankinensis
A plant of little merit, except for its foliage,which is of a rich bronze purple. It bears a cream-coloured flower in July. It may be rais...

Periploca Graeca
A hardy, deciduous, twining shrub, which will growin any soil, and may be increased by layers or by cuttings placed under glass. It flower...

Periwinkle
See "Vinca."...

Pernettya
An American evergreen shrub, which, like all of its class,thrives best in sandy peat; it delights in partial shade, and a moist but well-d...

Petunias
These ornamental half-hardy perennials prefer a mixture ofsandy loam and vegetable mould, but will grow in any rich, light soil. Seeds sow...

Phacelia Campanularia
A superb, rich blue, hardy annual. It willgrow in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown in spring. Flowers are borne in June. Heig...

Phalaris
P. Arundinacea is the well-known perennial Ribbon Grass;it is easily grown from seed, and the root allows division. P. Canariensis is the ...

Philadelphus
Among the best of our flowering shrubs, producing awealth of sweetly-scented flowers. For cultivation, see "Syringa." ...

Philesia
An American evergreen shrub which grows best in peat, butwill thrive in any light soil. It should occupy a cool position, but be well shel...

Phillyrea
This effective border evergreen will grow in any ordinarygarden soil, and may be increased either by layers or cuttings. It has dark green...

Phlomis (lion's Tail)
This effective hardy perennial will grow inany rich, light soil in a warm position, and is a fine lawn plant. Flowers are produced from Ju...

Phlox
For richness of colour and duration of bloom there are fewplants that can rival either the annual or perennial Phlox. The trailing kinds a...

Phormium Tenax
A greenhouse herbaceous plant which succeeds best inrich loam. It flowers in August, and may be propagated by dividing the roots. Height, ...

Phygelius Capensis
A greenhouse perennial bearing carmine and yellowflowers in June, but is hardy enough to be grown on a warm border. It is increased by off...

Physalis (winter Cherry)
A rich, light soil is most suitable forthe stove and greenhouse kinds, cuttings of which root freely under glass. The hardy kinds will gro...

Physianthus Albens
This evergreen climber is a good plant fortraining to the rafters of a greenhouse. It grows well in a mixture of sandy loam and peat, and ...

Physostegia
Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, ranging in colourfrom white to purple. They like a rich soil, and can be raised from seed sown in Marc...

Phyteuma Hallierii
A very pretty hardy perennial. It will thrive inany soil, blooms from May to August, and can be readily increased by seed or division. Hei...

Phytolacca Decandra (virginian Poke)
A very fine herbaceous plant,bearing bunches of pretty black berries. It requires a rich soil and plenty of room for its widespreading bra...

Picotees
See "Carnations."...

Pimelias
Very beautiful, compact, and free-growing greenhouseeverlasting shrubs. The most suitable soil consists of three parts sandy peat and one ...

Pimpernel
See "Anagallis."...

Pinguicula Grandiflora (great Irish Butterwort)
This handsome,hardy bog-plant produces deep violet-blue flowers in August and September. It may be grown in any damp soil and increased by...

Pinks
Will live in almost any soil, but if large blooms are requiredrich earth is essential. They are increased by pipings taken in May or June....

Pinus
As a tall specimen tree nothing is more graceful than theCorsican Pine (Pinus Laricio). P. Strobus Nana is a curious dwarf variety, rarely...

Piping
This consists in drawing out the young grass, or shoots, fromthe joints of Pinks, etc., from May to July being the time for doing so. Plac...

Platycodon (japanese Balloon Flower)
Hardy and elegant herbaceousplants, requiring a sandy soil. They may be raised either from seeds or from cuttings of the young growth; the...

Platystemon Californicus
Pretty hardy annuals which thrive in asandy soil. They are easily raised from seed sown in March or April, and bring forth their flowers i...

Pleroma Elegans
A beautiful evergreen shrub for a greenhouse. Pot inequal parts of loam, peat, and sand. It flowers in July. Cuttings may be struck in pea...

Plumbago
These pretty evergreens will grow in any soil, and can bepropagated in September by cuttings of half-ripened wood having a heal, planted i...

Plums
Almost any soil will grow this useful fruit. Young trees maybe planted at any time, when the ground is friable, from November to March, bu...

Poa Trivalis
A very pretty, dwarf-growing, variegated grass. Plantin a moist situation in a rich, light, loamy soil. It is increased either by seed or ...

Podocarpus
See "Cephalotaxus."...

Podolepis
Hardy annuals bearing yellow and red and white flowers. Amixture of loam and peat is most suitable for their growth. They are easily raise...

Podophyllum Peltatum (duck's Foot, Or May Apple)
Grown chieflyfor its foliage and berries, this hardy herbaceous perennial forms a pleasing spectacle when planted in moist soil under tree...

Poinsettia Pulcherrima
A stove evergreen shrub which produces lovelycrimson bracts in the winter. Plant in sandy loam, give plenty of water to the roots, and syr...

Polemonium (jacob's Ladder)
Hardy perennial border plants of anornamental character and of the easiest culture. Any soil suits them, and they merely require sowing in...

Polyanthus
Sow the seed late in autumn in well-drained boxes oflight, rich mould; cover it very lightly, place under glass, and water sparingly, but ...

Polygala Chamaesbuxus
A hardy evergreen trailing plant requiringa peat soil in which to grow. It may be increased from seed or by division of the roots. May is ...

Polygala Dalmaisiana
This showy evergreen shrub needs a greenhousetreatment. Soil--three parts peat, one part turfy loam, and a little sand. It flowers in Marc...

Polygonatum
These pretty herbaceous plants are quite hardy. Theflowers, which are borne in May or June, are mostly white. Plants succeed best in a ric...

Polygonum Brunonis (knotweed)
This strong-growing creepingperennial plant is not particular as to soil so long as it can enjoy plenty of sunshine. The shoots root of th...

Pomegranate
This requires a deep, loamy soil and a warm, airysituation. May be propagated by cuttings of the shrubs or the root, putting the cuttings ...

Poppies
See "Papaver" and "Stylophorum."...

Portulaca
The seeds of the hardy annual species of this genus may besown in a sheltered open spot in spring. The half-hardy annuals should be sown t...

Potatoes
Ground intended for Potatoes should be dug deeply in theautumn, thoroughly drained, well manured and trenched, and left rough on the surfa...

Potentilla
Handsome herbaceous plants with Strawberry-like foliage.They will grow in any common soil, and may be increased by dividing the roots or b...

Potting
Great attention must be paid to this important gardeningoperation. It is necessary that the pots used be perfectly clean, and, if new, soa...

Pratia Repens (lobelia Pratiana)
This pretty little creepingperennial is very suitable for the front of rock-work. It requires a well-drained vegetable soil and all the su...

Primroses
See "Primulas," and "Streptocarpus."...

Primulas
This genus embraces the Auricula, the Polyanthus, and thePrimrose. The greenhouse varieties are among the most useful of our winter-flower...

Prince's Feather
An ornamental hardy annual, producing tallspikes of dark crimson flowers and purple-tinted foliage. It is not particular as to soil, and m...

Privet
See "Ligustrum."...

Prophet's Flower
See "Arnebia."...

Prunella Grandiflora
A pretty hardy perennial, suitable for a frontborder or rock-work, bearing dense spikes of flowers from May to August. It grows well in an...

Pruning
The main objects to bear in mind in Pruning any kind of bushor tree are to prevent a congested growth of the branches, to remove any shoot...

Prunus
Beautiful early-flowering trees, which will grow in any soil,and can be increased by seeds or suckers. ...

Ptelia Trifoliata (hop Tree)
This is very suitable for planting onthe borders of still waters, where its long frond-like leaves, which turn to a golden yellow in autum...

Pulmonarias (lungworts)
Hardy perennials that require but littleattention; may be grown in any common soil, and propagated by division at any time. They flower in...

Pumilum
See "Heleniums."...

Pumpkins
Valuable for soups and pies in winter, and in summer theyoung shoots are an excellent substitute for Asparagus. For their cultivation, see...

Punica Granata Nana
A greenhouse deciduous shrub which flowers inAugust. The soil in which it is placed should be a light, rich loam. It can be most freely mu...

Puschkinia (striped Squills)
This charming bulbous plant may begrown in any light, rich mould, provided it is drained well. The bulbs may be separated when the clumps ...

Pyrethrum
The greenhouse kinds grow in any rich soil, and youngcuttings planted under glass root readily. The hardy kinds are not particular as to s...

Pyrola
A handsome hardy plant, suitable for a moist, shadysituation. It is raised from seed, or will bear dividing, but is rather hard to grow. H...

Pyrus Japonica
See "Cydonia."Q ...

Quaking Grass
See "Briza."...

Quercus Ilex
A handsome evergreen Oak, delighting in a deep, loamysoil. It is propagated by seed sown as soon as it is ripe. ...

Quinces
Plant in autumn in a moist but well-drained soil. Cuttingsof stout stems 6 or 8 in. long, firmly and deeply planted in a shady situation, ...

Radish
For an early supply sow on a gentle hotbed under a frame inJanuary, February, and March. For succession sow thinly on a warm and sheltered...

Ragged Robin
See "Lychnis."...

Ragwort
See "Jacobaea."...

Ramondia Pyrenaica
A pretty dwarf perennial, suitable for moistinterstices of rock-work. It should be planted in a slanting position, so that the roots, whil...

Rampion
The roots are used in cooking, and also for salads. Forwinter use sow in April in rows 12 in. apart, covering the seeds lightly with fine ...

Ranunculus
These prefer a good stiff, rather moist, but well-drainedloam, enriched with well-rotted cow-dung, and a sunny situation. February is prob...

Raphiolepis Ovata
Beautiful evergreen shrubs, producing long spikesof white flowers in June. A compost of loam, peat, and sand is their delight. Cuttings wi...

Raspberries
A rich, moist, loamy soil is most suitable for theircultivation. Suckers are drawn by the hand from the old roots any time between October...

Red-hot Poker
See "Tritoma."...

Red Scale
See "Scale."...

Red Spiders
These troublesome pests which appear in the heat ofsummer, may be got rid of by constantly syringing the plants attacked, and by occasiona...

Retinospora Filifera
A large-growing, hardy evergreen shrub. It maybe grown in any light soil, and increased by seed, or by cuttings planted under glass in the...

Rhamnus (buckthorn)
Fine evergreen shrubs, of hardy habit andquick growth. They may be grown in any soil, but prefer a sheltered situation, and are very suita...

Rheum Palmatum
This species of rhubarb makes an effective plant forthe back portion of a border. It does well in rich loam, flowering in June, and is inc...

Rhodanthe (swan River Everlasting)
These beautiful everlastingflowers are half-hardy annuals and are suitable for beds or ribbons, and make most graceful plants for pot cult...

Rhododendrons
Plant in October in peat, or in a compost of sandy,turfy loam, with a good proportion of decayed leaves and charred refuse. The best posit...

Rhubarb
Seed may be sown thinly during April in drills 1 ft. apart.Thin out the plants 12 in. from each other, and let them grow on till the follo...

Rhubarb, Chilian
See "Gunnera."...

Rhus (sumach)
Lovely shrubs, growing in any ordinary soil. Theyoung shoots of R. Cotinus are clothed with round leaves which change to bright crimson an...

Rhynchospermum (trachelospermum) Jasminoides
A pretty, evergreen,woody climber for the conservatory, which succeeds best in a compost of light loam and peat; is of easy culture, and r...

Ribes (flowering Currants)
Well-known shrubs, growing in any soil,and flowering early in spring. The colours vary from crimson to white. They may be raised from cutt...

Richardia Aethiopica
A fine herbaceous perennial with very boldleaves. It needs a good supply of water, and on dry soils should be planted in trenches. A light...

Ricinus, Or Palma Christi (castor-oil Plant, Etc.)
The foliage ofthese half-hardy annuals is very ornamental. The plants like a rich soil. Sow the seed early in spring in a slight heat, har...

Robinia
All these shrubs have fine, Fern-like foliage which changescolour in autumn. The Pea-shaped flowers vary in colour from cream to purple, a...

Rock Cress
See "Arabis."...

Rocket (hesperis)
The hardy perennials like a light, rich soil,and need to be frequently divided. The best time to divide them is just after they have done ...

Rock Rose
See "Cistus" and "Helianthemum."...

Rodgersia Podophylla
A hardy perennial having immense bronzefoliage. It thrives best in a moist, peaty soil; flowers from May to July, and may readily be incre...

Rogiera Gratissima
A pretty evergreen stove shrub, which is oftentrained to a single stem so as to form a standard. It succeeds in sandy loam and peat. It ma...

Romneyi Coulteri
This grand white-flowered Poppy Tree is quitehardy, and will grow in any light, rich soil. It blooms in August and September, and may be i...

Rose Campion
A pretty hardy perennial which may be grown from seedsown in autumn, choosing a sheltered site, or in March in a frame or under a hand-gla...

Rosemary (rosmarinus Officinalis)
This hardy evergreen shrubshould occupy a dry and sheltered position. Its fragrant purple flowers are produced in February. Cuttings of th...

Roses
A good, deep, loamy soil, well drained, but which retains acertain amount of moisture, is the most suitable. The position should be shelte...

Rose Of Heaven
See "Viscaria Coeli Rosa."...

Rose Of Sharon
See "Hibiscus Syriacus."...

Rubus
See "Blackberries."Rudbeckia (Cone Flower.)--Hardy annuals yielding yellow flowers in July. They are readily grown from seed sown early in...

Ruscus Aculeatus (butchers Broom)
A hardy evergreen shrub whichthrives in any rich soil, and may be increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft. ...

Ruta Graveolens
This hardy evergreen shrub is a species of Rue.It enjoys a good, rich soil, in which it flowers freely in August. Cuttings may be struck u...

Ruta Patavina (rue Of Padua)
For rock-work this hardy perennial isvery useful. It likes a dry yet rich and light soil. At midsummer it produces an abundance of greenis...

Saffron, Spring
See "Bulbocodium."...

Sage
This useful herb likes a rich, light soil, and is propagated bydivision of the root, by cuttings, or by seed. ...

Saintpaulia Ionantha
The leaves of this plant spread themselveslaterally just over the soil, forming a rosette, in the centre of which spring up large violet-l...

St. John's Wort
See "Hypericum."...

Salix Reticulata
A dwarf creeping plant whose dark green leaveseminently fit it for the rock-work or carpet bedding. It will grow in any soil, but prefers ...

Salpiglossis
Very beautiful half-hardy annuals which are greatlyprized for cut bloom. A light but not over-rich soil suits them best. The seed may be s...

Salsafy (vegetable Oyster)
Sow the seed in any good gardensoil--deep sandy loam is best--towards the end of April in drills 1 ft. apart, and thin the plants out to a...

Salvia
Very showy flowers, well worth cultivating, and easily grownin a rich, light soil. The annuals and biennials may be sown in the open early...

Sambucus (the Elder)
Useful deciduous shrubs. S. Nigra Aureahas golden foliage, and is suitable for town gardens. The silvery variegated variety (Variegata), i...

Sand Wort
See "Arenaria."...

Sanguinaria Canadensis (bloodroot)
A hardy perennial, curiousboth in leaf and flower. It requires a light, sandy soil, shade, and moisture; is propagated by seed sown in Jul...

Santolina
This hardy evergreen shrub grows freely in any soil. Itflowers in July, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 2 ft. ...

Sanvitalia
Interesting, hardy annual trailers, which may be readilyraised from seed sown in March or April, and merely require ordinary treatment. Th...

Saponaria
These grow best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat ordecayed vegetable soil. The annuals may be sown either in autumn, and wintered in a ...

Sarracenia
Curious herbaceous plants, requiring to be grown in potsof rough peat, filled up with sphagnum moss, in a moderately cool house having a m...

Sauromatum Guttatum
This makes a good window or cool greenhouseplant. Pot the tuber in good loam and leaf-soil, and keep the mould only just damp until the fo...

Savoys
Sow the seed in March or April, and when the plants are 2 in.high remove them to a nursery-bed, selecting the strongest first. Let them re...

Saxifrage
These beautiful Alpine perennials delight in a light,sandy soil, and are easily propagated by seed or division. It is most convenient to g...

Scabious
Ornamental and floriferous hardy biennials, which growfreely in common soil. The seed may be sown at any time between March and midsummer;...

Scale
Red Scale may be easily overcome with a strong solution ofsoft soap applied with a sponge. White Scale is harder to deal with. Syringe fre...

Schizanthus
Extremely beautiful and showy annuals. A rather poor,light soil is most suitable for their growth. For early flowering sow the seed in aut...

Schizopetalum
This singular and delightfully fragrant annualdoes best in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or sandy loam and leaf-mould. Sow the seed i...

Schizostylis Coccinea (crimson Flag, Or Kaffre Lily)
A most lovelyautumn-blooming plant, producing abundant spikes of Izia-like flowers about 2 ft. high. It is suitable for pot-culture or pla...

Scillas (squills)
Very useful spring-flowering bulbs. They arehardy, and do well in any position in light soil. When mixed with Crocuses and Snowdrops they ...

Scorzonera
Sow in March in light soil in rows 18 in. apart. Thinthe plants out to about 7 in. one from the other. They may perhaps be ready for use i...

Scutellaria
These plants will grow in any good soil. The hardyperennials flower in July. The greenhouse varieties merely require protecting in the win...

Scyphanthus
An elegant and curious trailer, which is best grown ina loamy soil. It may be increased from seed sown in April, and it flowers in August....

Sea Cabbage
See "Crambe Cordifolia."...

Seakale
The readiest way of propagating this useful vegetable is byoff-sets, but it may be raised from seed sown in March or April in rows 1 ft. a...

Sea Lavender
See "Statice."...

Sea Milkweed
See "Glaux."...

Sedum (stonecrop)
This well-known hardy perennial is suitable forpots or rock-work. It delights in a light, sandy soil, and is readily increased by division...

Seed-sowing
Two of the most important points in the sowing of seedare the proper condition of the ground and the regular and uniform depth at which th...

Seeds, The Protection Of
In order to protect seeds against birds,insects, and rodents, soak them in water containing 20 or 25 per cent, of mineral oil. Vegetable s...

Sempervivum (houseleek)
The hardy kinds are well known, and mayoften be seen growing on the roofs of cottages and on walls. They make good rock-work plants, and a...

Senecio Pulcher (noble Crimson Groundsel)
A warm position and adeep, rich, well-drained soil are needed for this flower. It may be propagated by cutting the roots into pieces 5 or ...

Senna, Bladder
See "Colutea."...

Sensitive Plant
See "Mimosa."...

Shallots
Plant the bulbs in November, or in February or March, inrows 9 in. apart, and the bulbs 6 in. one from the other. In July, when the tops a...

Shamrock
See "Trifolium Repens."...

Sheep Scabious
See "Jasione."...

Shortia Galacifolia
A hardy, creeping Alpine evergreen, having ovalleaves, slightly notched at the margins, which turn to a brilliant crimson during the autum...

Shrubs
Deciduous shrubs may be transplanted at any time during lateautumn or winter when the ground is not too wet. Evergreen shrubs may be moved...

Shrubs For Lawns
Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria Imbricata)--mix woodashes and burnt refuse with the soil; Thujopsis Delabrata, Thujopsis Borealis (of taller grow...

Sicyos
This hardy annual somewhat resembles the Cucumber, but isscarcely worth growing except as a curiosity. The seeds are sown on a hotbed in s...

Sidalcea
Very pretty hardy perennials, of easy culture. S. Candidahas pure white flowers closely arranged on the upper part of the stems. S. Malvae...

Silene (catchfly)
Elegant plants, delighting in a light, richsoil. Sow the seeds of the annual varieties early in April where they are intended to bloom. Si...

Silphium Aurantiacum
A good and hardy border perennial, whichproduces during July and August large deep orange-yellow flowers resembling a Sunflower. It is ver...

Sisyrinchium Grandifolium(satin Flower, Or Rush Lily)
A light loamsuits this plant, which is moderately hardy. The soil should be moist, but not wet. It does not like being disturbed, but when...

Skimmia
Neat-growing, dwarf evergreen shrubs having Laurel-likeleaves, and producing a profusion of scarlet berries in winter. They succeed in any...

Slugs
A sharp watch should be kept over all slugs, and constantvisits paid to the garden at daybreak for their destruction. If fresh cabbage lea...

Smilax
A greenhouse climbing plant that is admired for its foliagerather than its bloom. A mixture of peat and loam or leaf-mould and sandy loam ...

Snails
To prevent snails crawling up walls or fruit trees daub theground with a thick paste of soot and train oil. There is no remedy so effectua...

Snake's Head Lilies
See "Fritillarias."...

Snapdragon
See "Antirrhinum."...

Sneezewort
See "Achillea."...

Snowball Tree
See "Viburnum."...

Snowberry
See "Symphoricarpus."Snowdrops (Galanthus).--These are most effective in clumps. They may be planted at any time from September to Decembe...

Snowdrop Tree
See "Halesia."...

Snowflake
See "Leucojum."...

Snow In Summer
See "Arabis."...

Soil And Its Treatment
Loam is a mixture of clay and sand. Whenthe former predominates it is termed heavy loam, and when the latter abounds it is called light. M...

Solanum
Showy greenhouse shrubs, some of which have ornamentalfoliage. The soil in which they are grown should be light and rich. Cuttings planted...

Soldanellas
These small herbaceous perennials should find a place inall Alpine collections. They grow best in sandy peat, or in leaf-mould with a libe...

Solidago (golden Rod)
A useful hardy perennial for the back ofborders. Throughout late summer and autumn it produces masses of golden flowers. It is not over-pa...

Solomon's Seal (polygonatum Multiflorum)
A graceful hardy plantbearing white pendulent flowers on long curving stems. Plant freely in light, rich soil, in a shady position or unde...

Soot-water
For room and window plants soot-water has this advantageover coarse animal manures, that while the latter are unhealthy and apt to taint t...

Sorrel
Sow in March or April in any garden soil, thin out to 1 ft.apart. It is desirable to cut away the flower-stems and to divide the roots eve...

Southernwood (artemisia Arborea)
Any soil suits this odoriferousbush, and it is readily increased by cuttings or by division. ...

Sparaxis
Closely allied to the Ixias, equally beautiful and variedin colour, but rather dwarfer and compact in growth. Invaluable for pot-culture. ...

Sparmannia Africana
An exceedingly handsome and attractivegreenhouse evergreen shrub, thriving best in loam and peat. Cuttings may be struck in sand under gla...

Spartium Junceum(yellow Broom)
A hardy evergreen shrub which willgrow in any soil, and is propagated by seeds. It flowers in August. Height, 6 ft. ...

Specularia Speculum
See "Venus's Looking-Glass."...

Spergula Pilfera
May be grown in any moist situation in sandy soil.It is of little value. ...

Sphenogyne Speciosa
An elegant hardy annual. Sow the seed early inspring on a gentle hotbed in loam and peat, harden off, and transplant at the end of May to ...

Spider Wort
See "Commelina" and "Tradescantia."...

Spigelia Marilandica
From August to October this hardy perennialproduces tubular crimson and yellow flowers. It finds a congenial home in damp peat, shaded fro...

Spinach
For summer use sow the round-seeded kinds at intervals oftwo or three weeks from February to the end of July in rows 1 ft. apart, cover wi...

Spiraeas
Placed in the open ground these make splendid plants, andare not particular as to soil, though a moist, rich one is preferable. For forcin...

Spruce Firs
See "Abies."...

Stachys Coccinea
This scarlet hardy annual is fine for bees. It maybe grown in any soil from seed sown in March or April. Height, 1 ft. ...

Stachys Lanata
A hardy perennial which will grow in any soil, andbears division. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft. Staphylea Colchica(Mexican Bladder Nut...

Star Flower
See "Trientalis."...

Star Of Bethlehem
See "Ornithogalum."Statice (Sea Lavender).--The greenhouse and frame varieties succeed best in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased b...

Stauntonia Latifolia
A greenhouse evergreen climbing plant, whichneeds a peat and loam soil and plenty of room for its roots. It flowers in April, and is incre...

Stenactis (fleabane)
Showy hardy perennials which make finebedding plants. They may be grown from seed, which is produced in great quantities, and merely requi...

Stephanotis
This pretty evergreen twining plant is most suitable forthe greenhouse, and flourishes in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould. It flowers in ...

Sternbergia Lutea
A hardy perennial which produces bright yellowflowers in August. It likes a rich soil, and is propagated by off-sets. Height, 6 in. ...

Stipa Pennata (feather Grass)
One of the most graceful of ourornamental grasses, and most attractive in the border. The seed may be sown early in March, keeping the gro...

Stobaea Purpurea
A hardy border plant with long spiny foliage, andbearing from July to September large light blue flowers. It requires a light, rich soil. ...

Annual, Or Ten Weeks' Stocks
Sow the seeds in February, March,April, and May for succession; those sown in May will continue to flower till Christmas. The soil should ...

Brompton
Sow very thinly during the first week in May in a rich,light, sandy border, with an eastern aspect. When 2 or 3 in. high, thin out to 9 in...

Night-scented Stocks
See "Mathiola Bicornis." If Emperor,Imperial, or Intermediate Stocks are sown in March or April, they will flower in the autumn; if sown i...

Stokesia Cyanea
A handsome herbaceous perennial which is quitehardy, but owing to the late period at which it flowers its blooms are liable to be cut off ...

Stonecrop
See "Sedum."...

Strawberries
The soil most suitable for the growth of this fruit isa rich, deep, adhesive loam. July or early in August is the best time to make new be...

Strawberry Tree
See "Arbutus."...

Streptocarpus (cape Primrose)
This plant is a greenhouseperennial, showing great variety of colours, from white to violet and crimson, and is of neat habit. A light and...

Streptosolen Jamesoni
A good compost for this greenhouse evergreenshrub is two parts sandy loam, one part leaf-mould, and a little silver sand. During growth it...

Styrax
Ornamental shrubs requiring a light soil for theircultivation. S. Japonica has Snowdrop-like flowers, and S. Obasa Lily-of-the-Valley-like...

Sunflower
See "Helianthus."...

Swainsonia Galegifolia Alba
A graceful and charming cool greenhouseplant, with Fern-like evergreen foliage and pure white flowers, which are borne from April to Novem...

Swallow Wort
See "Asclepias."...

Swamp Lilies
See "Zephyranthes."...

Swan River Daisy
See "Brachycome."...

Sweet Alyssum
See "Alyssum."...

Sweet Flag
See "Acorus."...

Sweet Peas
See "Peas, Sweet."...

Sweet Rocket
See "Rocket."...

Sweet Scabious
See "Scabious."...

Sweet Sultan
Sweet-scented, Thistle-shaped hardy annual flowers,which are very useful for cutting. They may be raised in any garden soil from seed sown...

Sweet William
Well-known hardy perennials, and deservedly favouriteborder plants, which may be grown in any good soil; but to have them to perfection th...

Symphoricarpus (snowberry)
A handsome species of St. Peter's Wort.The shrubs will grow in any ordinary soil, are hardy, and readily propagated by suckers, which are ...

Symphytum Caucasicum
Hardy perennials. They will grow in any soilor situation, even thriving under the shade of trees, and may be increased by division. June i...

Tacsonia
A beautiful twining shrub belonging to the Passiflorafamily. It should be provided with a rich soil, and, as the flowers are produced upon...

Tagetes (french And African Marigolds)
Half-hardy annuals, veryelegant when in flower, and deserve a place in the garden. The seed should be sown on a hotbed in March or April, ...

Tamarix
Neat feathery plants, very suitable for banks and thrivingat the seaside, as is evidenced by its luxuriant growth along the parades at Eas...

Tansy
A feathery-foliaged hardy perennial, useful for mixing withcut blooms. No special treatment is required. Height, 11 ft. ...

Taxus
See "Yew."...

Tecoma
Ornamental evergreen shrubs of a twining nature, needing agreenhouse for their cultivation. They require a rich, loamy soil mixed with a l...

Telekia
See "Buphthalmum."...

Tellima Grandiflora
A hardy and very ornamental perennial with roundbronzy foliage and spikes of white flowers at midsummer. It succeeds best in peat, but wil...

Tetratheca
Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs which producepink flowers in July. They flourish in a soil consisting of equal proportions of loam, pea...

Teucrium Scorodonia
This hardy herbaceous plant will grow in anyordinary garden soil. It flowers in July, and is easily raised from seed or increased by divis...

Thalictrum
Hardy Fern-like perennials, suitable for the backs ofborders. They grow well in any light soil from seed sown in spring or autumn, and may...

Thladianthe Dubia
A fine climbing plant with handsome foliage and anabundance of fine yellow flowers. Quite hardy. Sow on a hotbed early in spring, and when...

Thrift
See "Armeria."...

Thumbergia
These slender, rapid-growing climbers are extremelypretty when in bloom during June, but they are only half-hardy; they therefore need gre...

Thuya (arbor Vitae)
Very decorative conifers, mostly of conicalshape, and indispensable to the shrubbery. They thrive in any soil, but prefer a moist situatio...

Thymus
Effective little perennials for rock-work, growing best ina light, dry, sandy soil. The hardy kinds like an exposed position; rarer kinds ...

Tiarella
These hardy herbaceous plants are very suitable forrock-work or the front of a border. They are not particular as to soil; they flower in ...

Tiarella Cordifolia (foam Flower)
A hardy herbaceous perennial,having fine foliage. It will grow in any good soil, but likes shade and moisture. It may be increased by divi...

Iris)
A gorgeous flower of exceptional beauty. Plant the bulbs inthe sunniest spot out of doors during March, April, or May, in a sandy loam enr...

Tobacco Plants
See "Nicotiana."...

Tobacco-water
Boil 2 oz. of shag, or other strong tobacco, in a pintof water. Apply with a soft brush. This is a deadly poison to insects. ...

Tomatoes (love Apples)
Those intended to be grown in the openshould be raised from seed sown the first week in March in pots of very rich, light mould. Place the...

Toothwort
See "Dentaria."...

Torch Lily
See "Tritoma."...

Torenia
These stove and greenhouse plants require a rich soil. Theymay be increased by seed or division. They flower during June and July. Height,...

Tournefort
See "Crambe Cordifolia."...

Tradescantia Virginica (spider Wort)
A hardy herbaceous plant. Ina light, rich soil it will flower in July. Height, 1 ft. There are other varieties of Tradescantia; they all m...

Transplanting
Plants may be transplanted as soon as they are largeenough to handle. They must be lifted carefully with a small trowel, or if they are ve...

Traveller's Joy (clematis Viorna)
This hardy climbing plant growsbest in a light soil, flowers in August, and is increased by layers of the young shoots in summer. Height, ...

Trees, Plants That Flourish Under
Ivy, St. John's Wort (HypericumCalycinum), early-flowering White Aconite. ...

Tricyrtis
These greenhouse herbaceous plants bloom in May. A rich,light soil suits them. Height, 6 in. ...

Trientalis Europaea (star Flower)
To grow this native perennialto advantage, it should be planted in leaf-mould with which a large proportion of sand has been mixed. Confin...

Trifolium Repens Pentaphyllum
A showy, hardy, deciduous perennial.It thrives in ordinary soil, puts forth its white flowers in June, and is propagated by seed or divisi...

Trillium Erectum (wood Lily)
This tuberous perennial is quitehardy, and flourishes in partial shade. The soil must be light and rich, yet moist. The plant does not inc...

Tritelia
A charming spring-flowering plant, bearing pretty whitestar-like flowers on slender stalks. It is used largely for edgings. It looks well ...

Tritoma (red-hot Poker, Or Torch Lily)
Requires a rich, sandysoil, and to be protected in a frame from wet and frost in the winter. Increase by division or by suckers from the r...

Tritonias
These somewhat resemble miniature Gladioli, and areamong the most useful bulbs for pot-culture. Plant from September to December, placing ...

Trollius Altaiense (globe Flower)
A pretty, hardy herbaceousplant, with very handsome foliage. It likes a light but moist soil, may be increased by seed or by dividing the ...

Trollius Asiaticus
A very pretty herbaceous plant, suitable for theborder. It may be raised from seed sown in the autumn, and grown on in light, moist soil. ...

Lobbianum (various Colours)
Elegant dwarf climbers, suitableeither for the conservatory or for outdoor culture. They may also be used for bedding if planted thinly an...

Speciosum (scarlet)
Of wild, graceful, luxuriant and slendergrowth. Fine for covering walls and fences, festooning arches, etc. Plant at the beginning of Octo...

Trumpet Flower
See "Bignonia."...

Tuberose
Plant the bulbs in January in a mixture of sandy loam androtten dung, or leaf-mould, using a small pot for each bulb. Plunge them in a hot...

Tulips
Drainage may be considered as the chief means of success inthe cultivation of these showy spring flowers. The soil they like best is well-...

Tunica
Same treatment as "Dianthus."...

Turkey's Beard
See "Xerophyllum."...

Turnips
To obtain mild and delicately-flavoured Turnips a somewhatlight, sandy, but deep, rich soil is necessary. For a first crop sow the Early W...

Tussilago Fragrans (winter Heliotrope)
A very fragrant hardyperennial, flowering in January and February. It will grow in any good garden soil and bears division. Height, 1 ft. ...

Twin Flower
See "Bravoa."U ...

Ulex Europaeus Flore Pleno (double Furze)
This elegant, hardy,evergreen shrub likes a rich, sandy soil, and may be increased by cuttings planted in a shady border and covered with ...

Umbilicus Chrysanthus
This little Alpine plant should occupy a warm,sheltered, and dry situation, and be protected with an overhead screen in wet seasons. The s...

Uvularia
Beautiful hardy perennials, producing drooping flowers fromMay to July. They succeed best in a light, sandy soil, and may be increased by ...

Vaccineum Myrtillus And V. Uliginosum
Attractive deciduous shrubs.They require to be grown in peat or very sandy loam. In April or May they produce flowers. They can be increas...

Vaccineum Vitis-idaea (red Whortleberry)
A neat native shrubwhich, with its flowers and clusters of bright red berries, is very attractive in autumn. A rich, light, sandy soil, mo...

Valeriana
An ornamental hardy perennial. It will succeed in anygarden soil, and merely requires the same treatment as ordinary perennials. It is rea...

Vegetable Marrow
Sow in pots during March or April, and place in acucumber frame or on a hotbed, and cover with a hand-glass. Harden off, and plant out abo...

Venidium
Hardy annuals, which are best raised from seed sown earlyin March on a slight hotbed, and grown in turfy loam, or loam and peat. They bloo...

Venus's Car
See "Dielytra."...

Venus's Looking-glass (specularia Speculum)
A pretty hardy annual,bearing a profusion of Campanula-like flowers in July. Suitable for beds, pots, hanging baskets, or rock-work. It fl...

Venus's Navel Wort
A charming hardy annual for rock-work. The seedshould be sown early in spring in good garden mould. Height, 6 in. ...

Veratum
Handsome foliage plants. They are quite hardy, and delightin a rich soil. July is the month in which they flower. They may be raised from ...

Verbascum
A hardy annual, which produces a profusion of showyflowers in July, and is very suitable for the backs of borders. It will thrive in any s...

Verbena
This charming half-hardy perennial succeeds best in light,loamy soil. It seeds freely, and roots rapidly by being pegged down. It is usual...

Verbena, Lemon-scented
See "Aloysia."...

Veronica
This graceful evergreen, commonly called Speedwell, bearshandsome spikes of autumn flowers, and makes a good conservatory or sitting-room ...

Vesicaria Graeca
A small hardy evergreen shrub, suitable forrock-work or edgings. It likes a light, dry soil and an open situation. It may be propagated by...

Viburnum Opulus(guelder Rose, Or Snowball Tree)
A very elegantand hardy deciduous shrub, which will grow in any soil, and may be increased by layers, or by cuttings planted in the shade ...

Viburnum Tinus (laurestinus)
This well-known and much-admiredevergreen shrub produces masses of white flowers through the winter months, at which season it is especial...

Vicia Pyrenaica
A hardy and good perennial for rock-work, havingcompact tufts of green growth and producing deep crimson flowers in May and June. It will ...

Vinca (periwinkle)
Many of these are variegated and very showy asrock-work plants, and will grow in any moist soil, enjoying a shady situation. They may be r...

Vines
See "Grapes."...

Violas
The hardy perennials are suitable for the front of flowerborders or rock-work, but the smaller species succeed best when grown in pots in ...

Violets
Plant the runners or off-sets in May in loam and leaf-mould,choosing a damp, shady situation. Russian and Neapolitan Violets may be made t...

Virgilia
For the most part greenhouse shrubs, requiring to be grownin a compost of loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings planted in sandy loam and c...

Virginian Creeper (ampelopsis Hederacea)
May be propagated bylayers or cuttings, and will grow in any common garden soil. The plant is also known as the Five-leaved Ivy, is a rapi...

Virginian Stock
This pretty little hardy annual is readily raisedfrom seed sown on a border in autumn or spring. It is not particular as to soil. Height, ...

Virgin's Bower
See "Clematis."...

Viscaria Coeli Rosa (the Rose Of Heaven)
Sow in April, or on awarm, dry, sheltered spot in September. Other varieties of Viscaria are graceful and effective in beds, masses, or li...

Vitis Heterophylla
These vines are hardy, and will grow in anyrich soil. They are propagated by cuttings, and also by layers. V. Purpureus has purple leaves,...

Wahlenbergia
The hardy perennial kinds thrive best in pots, the soilin which should be kept moist. The annuals, which are raised on a hotbed in March, ...

Waitzia
Very beautiful half-hardy annuals, but more suitable for thegreenhouse than the open flower-bed. They require a sandy peat and leaf-mould,...

Waldsteina Fragarioides
A hardy and pretty trailing rock plant, withdeep green foliage. From March to May it bears yellow Strawberry-like flowers. Any soil suits ...

Wall-flower (cheiranthus)
These favourite hardy perennials prefera rich, light, sandy soil, and a dry situation. The seed may be sown where it is intended for them ...

Walnuts
The Nuts for raising young trees may be planted at any timebetween October and the end of February, 3 in. deep and 1-1/2 ft. apart. Train ...

Wand Plant
See "Galax."...

Wasps
To destroy Wasps rinse a large bottle with spirits ofturpentine, and thrust the neck into the principal entrance to their nest, stopping u...

Water-cress
Sow in prepared places, during spring, in sluggishbrooks and moist situations; or it may be grown on a shady border if kept moist by frequ...

Watsonia
Plant the bulbs during January in sandy loam with a littlepeat. They flower in April. Height, 1-1/2 ft. ...

Weeds In Paths
These may be destroyed by strong brine, applied whenhot. Or mix 1/2 lb. of oil of vitriol with 6 gallons of water, and apply, taking care ...

Weigelia
Free-flowering, hardy, deciduous shrubs, the flowers beingproduced in profusion along the shoots in April, and varying in colour from whit...

White Scale
See "Scale."...

Whitlavia
A hardy annual, needing no special treatment. It may besown in autumn, and protected during winter in a frame, or it may be raised in spri...

Whortleberry
See "Vaccineum."...

Wigandia Caraccasana
A stove deciduous shrub which thrives best in amixture of loam and peat. Cuttings in sand will strike if placed under glass and in heat. I...

Windflowers
See "Anemones."...

Winter Aconite (eranthis Hyemalis)
This is one of the very firstof flowers to bloom, being in advance of the Snowdrop. In the bleakest days of winter this little flower cove...

Winter Cherry
See "Physalis."...

Winter Heliotrope
See "Tussilago."...

Wire-worms
Before using mould for potting purposes it is advisableto examine it carefully and pick out any Wire-worms that are in it. For the border ...

Wistaria
This noble wall plant may be abundantly produced, as a longlayer will root at every joint. It will also grow from cuttings of the plant an...

Witch Hazel
See "Hamamelis."...

Withania Origanifolia (pampas Lily-of-the-valley)
A hardy climbingplant, attaining a height of 20 or 30 ft. in a very short period. The foliage is small, but very dense and of a dark green...

Wolf's Bane
See "Aconite."...

Wood, To Preserve
In order to prevent wooden posts, piles, etc.,from rotting, dip the parts to be sunk in the earth in the following composition:--Fine, har...

Wood Lily
See "Trillium."...

Woodruff
See "Asperula."...

Worms, To Destroy
To each 5 lbs. of newly-slaked lime add 15 gallonsof water. Stir it well, let it settle, draw off the clear portion, and with it water the...

Wulfenia Carinthiaca
A pretty and hardy perennial from theCorinthian Alps, suitable alike for rock-work or the border, throwing up spikes of blue flowers from ...

Xeranthemum
These charming everlasting annuals retain, in a driedstate, their form and colour for several years. They are of the easiest culture, mere...

Xerophyllum Asphodeloides (turkey's Beard)
A showy hardy perennialwith tufts of graceful, curving, slender foliage. From May to July, when it bears spikes of white flowers, it is ve...

Xerotes
Herbaceous plants, which thrive well in any light, richsoil, and are readily increased by dividing the roots. They flower in June. Height,...

Yew (taxus)
For landscape gardening the old gold-striped (BaccataAurea Variegata) is most effective. The Japanese variety, T. Adpressa, is a pleasing ...

Yucca
This plant, popularly known as Adam's Needle thrives best indry, sandy loam. It is quite hardy, and does well on rock-work, to which it im...

Zauschneria
A Californian half-hardy perennial plant which bearsa profusion of scarlet tube-shaped flowers from June to October. It grows freely in a ...

Zea (indian Corn)
This is best raised in a hotbed early in spring,but it will germinate in ordinary soil in May. It requires a sunny situation. Height, 2 ft...

Zea Japonica Variegata (striped Japanese Maize)
A fine half-hardyannual ornamental grass, the foliage being striped green and white, and growing to the height of 3 ft. The cultivation is...

Zephyranthes (swamp Lilies)
Plant on a warm border in a rathersandy, well-drained soil. Give protection in severe weather, and supply with water during the growing se...

Abelmoschus Moschatus
This plant is a native of Bengal. Its seeds were formerly mixed with hair powder, and are still used to perfume pomatum. The Arabs mix ...

Abrus Precatorius
Wild liquorice. This twining, leguminous plant is a native of the East, but is now found in the West Indies and other tropical regions....

Abutilon Indicum
This plant furnishes fiber fit for the manufacture of ropes. Its leaves contain a large quantity of mucilage. ...

Abutilon Venosum
This malvaceous plant is common in collections, as are others of the genus. They are mostly fiber-producing species. The flowers of _A....

Acacia Brasiliensis
This plant furnishes the Brazil wood, which yields a red or crimson dye, and is used for dyeing silks. The best quality is that receive...

Acacia Catechu
The drug known as catechu is principally prepared from this tree, the wood of which is boiled down, and the decoction subsequently evap...

Acacia Dealbata
The silver wattle tree of Australia. The bark is used for tanning purposes. It is hardy South. ...

Acacia Homolophylla
This tree furnishes the scented myall wood, a very hard and heavy wood, of an agreeable odor, resembling that of violets. Fancy boxes f...

Acacia Melanoxylon
The wood of this tree is called mayall wood in New South Wales. It is also called violet wood, on account of the strong odor it has of ...

Acacia Mollissima
The black wattle tree of Australia, which furnishes a good tanning principle. These trees were first called wattles from being used by ...

Acrocomia Sclerocarpa
This palm grows all over South America. It is known as the great macaw-tree. A sweetish-tasted oil, called Mucaja oil, is extracted fro...

Adansonia Digitata
The baobab tree, a native of Africa. It has been called the tree of a thousand years, and Humboldt speaks of it as "the oldest organic ...

Adenanthera Pavonina
A tree that furnishes red sandal wood. A dye is obtained simply by rubbing the wood against a wet stone, which is used by the Brahmins ...

Adhatoda Vasica
This plant is extolled for its charcoal in the manufacture of powder. The flowers, leaves, roots, and especially the fruit, are conside...

Aegle Marmelos
This plant belongs to the orange family, and its fruit is known in India as Bhel fruit. It is like an orange; the thick rind of the unr...

Agave Americana
This plant is commonly known as American aloe, but it is not a member of that family, as it claims kindred with the _Amaryllis_ tribe o...

Agave Rigida
The sisal hemp, introduced into Florida many years ago, for the sake of its fiber, but its cultivation has not been prosecuted to a com...

Aleurites Triloba
The candleberry tree, much cultivated in tropical countries for the sake of its nuts. The nuts or kernels, when dried and stuck on a re...

Algarobia Glandulosa
The mezquite tree, of Texas, occasionally reaching a height of 25 to 30 feet. It yields a very hard, durable wood, and affords a large ...

Allamanda Cathartica
This plant belongs to the family of _Apocynaceae_, which contains many poisonous species. It is often cultivated for the beauty of its ...

Aloe Socotrina
Bitter aloe, a plant of the lily family, which furnishes the finest aloes. The bitter, resinous juice is stored up in greenish vessels,...

Alsophila Australis
This beautiful tree-fern attains a height of stem of 25 to 30 feet, with fronds spreading out into a crest 26 feet in diameter. These p...

Alstonia Scholaris
The Pali-mara, or devil tree, of Bombay. The plant attains a height of 80 or 90 feet; the bark is powerfully bitter, and is used in Ind...

Amomum Melegueta
Malaguetta pepper, or grains of paradise; belonging to the ginger family, _Zingiberaceae_. The seeds of this and other species are impo...

Amyris Balsamifera
This plant yields the wood called Lignum Rhodium. It also furnishes a gum resin analogous to Elemi, and supposed to yield Indian Bdelli...

Anacardium Occidentale
The cashew nut tree, cultivated in the West Indies and other tropical countries. The stem furnishes a milky juice, which becomes hard a...

Ananassa Sativa
The well-known pineapple, the fruit of which was described three hundred years ago, by Jean de Lery, a Huguenot priest, as being of suc...

Andira Inermis
This is a native of Senegambia. Its bark is anthelmintic, but requires care in its administration, being powerfully narcotic. It has a ...

Andropogon Muricatus
The Khus-Khus, or Vetiver grass of India. The fibrous roots yield a most peculiar but pleasing perfume. In India the leaves are manufac...

Andropogon Sch[oe]nanthus
The sweet-scented lemon grass, a native of Malabar. An essential oil is distilled from the leaves, which is used in perfumery. It is a ...

Anona Cherimolia
The Cherimoyer of Peru, where it is extensively cultivated for its fruits, which are highly esteemed by the inhabitants, but not so hig...

Anona Muricata
The sour-sop, a native of the West Indies, which produces a fruit of considerable size, often weighing over 2 pounds. The pulp is white...

Anona Reticulata
The common custard apple of the West Indies. It has a yellowish pulp and is not so highly esteemed as an article of food as some others...

Anona Squamosa
The sweet-sop, a native of the Malay Islands, where it is grown for its fruits. These are ovate in shape, with a thick rind, which incl...

Antiaris Innoxia
The upas tree. Most exaggerated statements respecting this plant have passed into history. Its poisonous influence was said to be so gr...

Antiaris Saccidora
The sack tree; so called from the fibrous bark being used as sacks. For this purpose young trees of about a foot in diameter are select...

Antidesma Bunias
An East India plant which produces small, intensely black fruit about the size of a currant, used in making preserves. The bark furnish...

Aralia Papyrifera
The Chinese rice paper plant. The stems are filled with pith of very fine texture and white as snow, from which is derived the article ...

Araucaria Bidwillii
The Bunya-Bunya of Australia, which forms a large tree, reaching from 150 to 200 feet in height. The cones are very large, and contain ...

Araucaria Brasiliensis
The Brazilian Araucaria, which grows at great elevations. The seeds of this tree are commonly sold in the markets of Rio Janeiro as an ...

Araucaria Cunninghamii
The Morton Bay pine. This Australian tree forms a very straight trunk, and yields a timber of much commercial importance in Sidney and ...

Araucaria Excelsa
This very elegant evergreen is a native of Norfolk Island. Few plants can compare with it in beauty and regularity of growth. The wood ...

Ardisia Crenata
A native of China. The bark has tonic and astringent properties, and is used in fevers and for external application in the cure of ulce...

Areca Catechu
This palm is cultivated in all the warmer parts of Asia for its seed. This is known under the name of betel nut, and is about the size ...

Argania Sideroxylon
This is the argan tree of Morocco. It is remarkable for its low-spreading mode of growth. Trees have been measured only 16 feet in heig...

Aristolochia Grandiflora
The pelican flower. This plant belongs to a family famed for the curious construction of their flowers, as well as for their medical qu...

Artanthe Elongata
A plant of the pepper family, which furnishes one of the articles known by the Peruvians as Matico, and which is used by them for the s...

Artocarpus Incisa
This is the breadfruit tree of the South Sea Islands, where its introduction gave occasion for the historical incidents arising from th...

Artocarpus Integrifolia
The jack of the Indian Archipelago, cultivated for its fruit, which is a favorite article among the natives, as also are the roasted se...

Astrocaryum Vulgare
Every part of this South American palm is covered with sharp spines. It is cultivated to some extent by the Indians of Brazil for the s...

Attalea Cohune
This palm furnishes Cahoun nuts, from which is extracted cohune oil, used as a burning oil, for which purpose it is superior to cocoanu...

Averrhoa Bilimbi
This is called the blimbing, and is cultivated to some extent in the East Indies. The fruit is oblong, obtuse-angled, somewhat resembli...

Averrhoa Carambola
The caramba of Ceylon and Bengal. The fruit of this tree is about the size of a large orange, and, when ripe, is of a rich yellow color...

Bactris Major
The Marajah palm, of Brazil, which grows upon the banks of the Amazon River. It has a succulent, rather acid fruit, from which a vinous...

Balsamocarpon Brevifolium
This shrub is the algarrobo of the Chilians. It belongs to the pea family. Its pods are short and thick, and when unripe contain about ...

Balsamodendron Myrrha
A native of Arabia Felix, producing a gum resin, sometimes called Opobalsamum, which was considered by the ancients as a panacea for al...

Bambusa Arundinacea
The bamboo cane, a gigantic grass, cultivated in many tropical and semitropical countries. The Chinese use it in one way or other for n...

Bauhinia Vahlii
The Maloo-climber of India, where the gigantic shrubby stems often attain a height of 300 feet, running over the tops of the tallest tr...

Beaucarnea Recurvifolia
This Mexican plant is remarkable for the large bulbiform swelling at the base of the stem. It is a plant of much elegance and beauty, r...

Bergera Koenigii
The curry-leaf tree of India. The fragrant, aromatic leaves are used to flavor curries. The leaves, root, and bark are used medicinally...

Berrya Ammonilla
This furnishes the Trincomalee wood of the Philippine Islands and Ceylon, and is largely used for making oil casks and for building boa...

Bertholletia Excelsa
This furnishes the well known Brazil nuts, or cream nuts of commerce. The tree is a native of South America and attains a height of 100...

Bignonia Echinata
A native of Mexico, where it is sometimes called Mariposa butterfly. The branches are said to be used in the adulteration of sarsaparil...

Bixa Orellana
Arnotta plant. This plant is a native of South America, but has been introduced and cultivated both in the West and East Indies. It bea...

Blighia Sapida
The akee fruit of Guinea. The fruit is about 3 inches long by 2 inches wide; the seeds are surrounded by a spongy substance, which is e...

B[oe]hmeria Nivea
A plant of the nettle family, which yields the fiber known as Chinese grass. The beautiful fabric called grasscloth, which rivals the b...

Boldoa Fragrans
A Chilian plant which yields small edible fruits; these, as well as all parts of the plant, are very aromatic. The bark is used for tan...

Borassus Flabelliformis
The Palmyra palm. The parts of this tree are applied to such a multitude of purposes that a poem in the Tamil language, although enumer...

Boswellia Thurifera
This Coromandel tree furnishes the resin known as olibanum, which is supposed to have been the frankincense of the ancients. It is some...

Bromelia Karatas
The Corawa fiber, or silk-grass of Guiana, is obtained from this plant, which is very strong, and much used for bowstrings, fishing lin...

Bromelia Pinguin
This is very common as a hedge or fence plant in the West Indies. The leaves, when beaten with a blunt mallet and macerated in water, p...

Brosimum Alicastrum
The bread-nut tree of Jamaica. The nuts or seeds produced by this tree are said to form an agreeable and nutritious article of food. Wh...

Brosimum Galactodendron
The cow tree of South America, which yields a milk of as good quality as that from the cow. It forms large forests on the mountains nea...

Brya Ebenus
Jamaica or West India ebony tree. This is not the plant that yields the true ebony-wood of commerce. Jamaica ebony is of a greenish-bro...

Byrsonima Spicata
A Brazilian plant, furnishing an astringent bark used for tanning, and also containing a red coloring matter employed in dyeing. The be...

Caesalpinia Bonduc
A tropical plant, bearing the seeds known as nicker nuts, or bonduc nuts. These are often strung together for necklaces. The kernels ha...

Caesalpinia Pulcherrima
This beautiful flowering leguminous plant is a native of the East Indies, but is cultivated in all the tropics. In Jamaica it is called...

Caesalpinia Sappan
The brownish-red wood of this Indian tree furnishes the Sappan wood of commerce, from which dyers obtain a red color, principally used ...

Calamus Rotang
This is one of the palms that furnish the canes or rattans used for chair bottoms, sides of pony-carriages, and similar purposes. It is...

Callistemon Salignus
A medium-sized tree from Australia; one of the many so-called tea trees of that country. The wood, which is very hard, is known as ston...

Callitris Quadrivalvis
This coniferous plant is a native of Barbary. It yields a hard, durable, and fragrant timber, and is much employed in the erection of m...

Calophyllum Calaba
This is called calaba tree in the West Indies, and an oil, fit for burning, is expressed from the seeds. In the West Indies these seeds...

Calotropis Gigantea
The inner bark of this plant yields a valuable fiber, capable of bearing a greater strain than hemp. All parts of it abound in a very a...

Camellia Japonica
A well-known green-house plant, cultivated for its large double flowers. The seeds furnish an oil of an agreeable odor, which is used f...

Camphora Officinarum
This tree belongs to the _Lauraceae_. Camphor is prepared from the wood by boiling chopped branches in water, when, after some time, th...

Canella Alba
This is a native of the West Indies, and furnishes a pale olive-colored bark with an aromatic odor, and is used as a tonic. It is used ...

Capparis Spinosa
The caper plant, a native of the South of Europe and of the Mediterranean regions. The commercial product consists of the flower-buds, ...

Carapa Guianensis
A meliaceous plant, native of tropical America, where it grows to a height of 60 to 80 feet. The bark of this tree possesses febrifugal...

Carica Papaya
This is the South American papaw tree, but is cultivated in most tropical countries. It is also known as the melon-apple. The fruit is ...

Carludovica Palmata
A pandanaceous plant from Panama and southward. Panama hats are made from the leaves of this plant. The leaves are cut when young, and ...

Caryocar Nuciferum
On the river banks of Guiana this grows to a large-sized tree. It yields the butter-nuts, or souari-nuts of commerce. These are of a fl...

Caryophyllus Aromaticus
This myrtaceous plant produces the well-known spice called cloves. It forms a beautiful evergreen, rising from 20 to 30 feet in height....

Caryota Urens
This fine palm is a native of Ceylon, and is also found in other parts of India, where it supplies the native population with various i...

Casimiroa Edulis
A Mexican plant, belonging to the orange family, with a fruit about the size of an ordinary orange, which has an agreeable taste, but i...

Cassia Acutifolia
The cassias belong to the leguminous family. The leaflets of this and some other species produce the well-known drug called senna. That...

Castilloa Elastica
This is a Mexican tree, which yields a milky juice, forming caoutchouc, but is not collected for commerce except in a limited way. ...

Casuarina Quadrivalvis
This Tasmanian tree produces a very hard wood of a reddish color, often called Beef wood. It is marked with dark stripes, and is much u...

Catha Edulis
This plant is a native of Arabia, where it attains the height of 7 to 10 feet. Its leaves are used by the Arabs in preparing a beverage...

Cecropia Peltata
The South American trumpet tree, so called because its hollow branches are used for musical instruments. The Waupe Indians form a kind ...

Cedrela Odorata
This forms a large tree in the West India Islands, and is hollowed out for canoes; the wood is of a brown color and has a fragrant odor...

Cephaelis Ipecacuanha
This Brazilian plant produces the true ipecacuanha, and belongs to the _Cinchonaceae_. The root is the part used in medicine, it is kno...

Ceratonia Siliqua
The carob bean. This leguminous plant is a native of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. The seed pods contain a quantity of ...

Cerbera Thevetia
The name is intended to imply that the plant is as dangerous as Cerberus. The plant has a milky, poisonous juice. The bark is purgative...

Cereus Gigantea
The suwarrow of the Mexicans, a native of the hot, arid, and almost desert regions of New Mexico, found growing in rocky places, in val...

Cereus Macdonaldiae
A night-blooming cereus, and one of the most beautiful. The flowers when fully expanded are over a foot in diameter, having numerous ra...

Ceroxylon Andicola
The wax palm of New Grenada, first described by Humboldt and Bonpland, who found it on elevated mountains, extending as high as the low...

Chamaedorea Elegans
This belongs to a genus of palms native of South America. The plant is of tall, slender growth; the stems are used for walking canes, a...

Chamaerops Fortunei
This palm is a native of the north of China, and is nearly hardy here. In China, the coarse brown fibers obtained from the leaves are u...

Chamaerops Humilis
This is the only European species of palm, and does not extend farther north than Nice. The leaves are commonly used in the south of Eu...

Chavica Betel
This plant is found all over the East Indies, where its leaf is largely used by Indian natives as a masticatory. Its consumption is imm...

Chiococca Racemosa
This plant is found in many warm countries, such as in southern Florida. It is called cahinca in Brazil, where a preparation of the bar...

Chloranthus Officinalis
The roots of this plant are an aromatic stimulant, much used as medicine in the Island of Java; also, when mixed with anise, it has pro...

Chloroxylon Swietenia
The satinwood tree of tropical countries. It is principally used for making the backs of clothes and hair brushes, and for articles of ...

Chrysobalanus Icaco
The cocoa plum of the West Indies. The fruits are about the size of a plum, and are of various colors, white, yellow, red, or purple. T...

Chrysophyllum Cainito
The fruit of this plant is known in the West Indies as the star apple, the interior of which, when cut across, shows ten cells, and as ...

Cicca Disticha
This Indian plant is cultivated in many parts under the name of Otaheite gooseberry. The fruits resemble those of a green gooseberry. T...

Cinchona Calisaya
The yellow bark of Bolivia. This is one of the so-called Peruvian Bark trees. The discovery of the medicinal value of this bark is a ma...

16 Afterwards The Jesuits Used It; Hence It Is Sometimes Called
Jesuit's bark. It was brought most particularly into notice when Louis XIV of France purchased of Sir R. Talbor, an Englishman, his her...

Cinnamomum Cassia
This furnishes cassia bark, which is much like cinnamon, but thicker, coarser, stronger, less delicate in flavor, and cheaper; hence it...

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum
A tree belonging to _Lauraceae_, which furnishes the best cinnamon. It is prepared by stripping the bark from the branches, when it rol...

Cissampelos Pareira
The velvet plant of tropical countries. The root furnishes the _Pareira brava_ of druggists, which is used in medicine. ...

Citrus Aurantium
The orange, generally supposed to be a native of the north of India. It was introduced into Arabia during the ninth century. It was unk...

Citrus Decumana
The shaddock, which has the largest fruit of the family. It is a native of China and Japan, where it is known as sweet ball. The pulp i...

Citrus Japonica
This is the Kum-quat of the Chinese. It forms a small tree, or rather a large bush, and bears fruit about the size of a large cherry...

Citrus Limetta
The lime, which is used for the same purposes as the lemon, and by some preferred, the juice being considered more wholesome and the ac...

Citrus Limonum
The lemon; this plant is found growing naturally in that part of India which is beyond the Ganges. It was unknown to the ancient Greeks...

Citrus Medica
The citron, found wild in the forests of northern India. The Jews cultivated the citron at the time they were under subjection to the R...

Clusia Rosea
A tropical plant which yields abundantly of a tenacious resin from its stem, which is used for the same purpose as pitch. It is first o...

Coccoloba Uvifera
Known in the West Indies as the seaside grape, from the peculiarity of the perianth, which becomes pulpy and of a violet color and surr...

Cocos Nucifera
The cocoanut palm. This palm is cultivated throughout the tropics so extensively that its native country is not known. One reason of it...

Cocos Plumosus
A Brazilian species, highly ornamental in its long, arching leaves, and producing quantities of orange-colored nuts, in size about as l...

Coffea Arabica
The coffee plant, which belongs to the _Cinchonaceae_ and is a native of Abyssinia, but is now cultivated in many tropical regions. It ...

Coffea Liberica
The Liberian coffee, cultivated in Africa, of which country it is a native. This plant is of larger and stronger growth than the Arabia...

Cola Acuminata
An African tree, which has been introduced into the West Indies and Brazil for the sake of its seeds, which are known as Cola, or Kola,...

Colocasia Esculenta
This plant has been recommended for profitable culture in this country for its edible root-stock. It is cultivated in the Sandwich Isla...

Condaminea Macrophylla
This plant belongs to the cinchona family, and contains tonic properties. The Peruvian bark gatherers adulterate the true cinchona bark...

Convolvulus Scammonia
This plant furnishes the scammony of the druggists. ...

Cookia Punctata
A small-growing tree from China, which produces a fruit known as the Wampee. This fruit is a globular berry, with five or fewer compart...

Copaifera Officinalis
This tree yields balsam of copaiba, used in medicine. The balsam is collected by making incisions in the stem, when the liquor is said ...

Copernica Cerifera
The Carnuba, or wax palm of Brazil. It grows about 40 feet high, and has a trunk 6 or 8 inches thick, composed of very hard wood, which...

Coprosma Robusta
A cinchonaceous shrub. The leaves of this plant were formerly used in some of the religious ceremonies of the New Zealanders. ...

Cordia Myxa
This produces succulent, mucilaginous, and emollient fruits, which are eaten. These qualities, combined with a slight astringency, have...

Cordyline Australis
The Australian Ti, or cabbage tree, a palm-like plant of 15 to 20 feet in height. The whole plant is fibrous, and it has been suggested...

Corypha Umbraculifera
The Talipot palm, a native of Ceylon, producing gigantic fan-like leaves. These leaves have prickly stalks 6 or 7 feet long, and when f...

Couroupita Guianensis
The fruit of this tree is called, from its appearance, the cannon-ball fruit; its shell is used as a drinking vessel, and when fresh th...

Crataeva Gynandra
This West Indian tree yields a small fruit which has a strong smell of garlic, hence it is called the garlic pear. The bark is bitter a...

Crescentia Cujete
The calabash tree of the West Indies, where it is valued for the sake of its fruits, which resemble pumpkins in appearance and occasion...

Croton Balsamiferum
This West Indian shrub is sometimes called seaside balsam or sage. A thick, yellowish, aromatic juice exudes from the extremities of th...

Croton Eleutheria
This plant furnishes cascarilla bark, used as an aromatic bitter tonic, having no astringency. It has a fragrant smell when burnt, on w...

Croton Tiglium
A plant of the family _Euphorbiaceae_, from the Indian Archipelago, which produces the seeds from whence croton oil is extracted. It is...

Cubeba Officinalis
A native of Java, which furnishes the cubeb fruits of commerce. These fruits are like black pepper, but stalked, and have an acrid, hot...

Curcas Purgans
A tropical plant cultivated in many warm countries for the sake of its seeds, known as physic nuts. The juice of the plant, which is mi...

Curcuma Longa
A plant belonging to the _Zingiberaceae_, the roots of which furnish turmeric. This powder is used in India as a mild aromatic, and for...

Curcuma Zedoaria
This plant furnishes zedoary tubers, much used in India as aromatic tonics. ...

Cyathea Medullaris
This beautiful tree fern is a native of Australia, where it attains a height of 25 to 30 feet, having fronds from 10 to 15 feet in leng...

Cybistax Antisyphilitica
A plant of the order of _Bignoniaceae_, called Atunyangua in the Andes of Peru, where the inhabitants dye their cotton clothes by boili...

Cycas Revoluta
The sago palm of gardens. The stem of the plants abounds in starch, which is highly esteemed in Japan. A gum exudes from the trunk of t...

Cycas Circinalis
A native of Malabar, where a kind of sago is prepared from the seeds, which are dried and powdered; medicinal properties are also attri...

Dacrydium Franklinii
Called Huon pine, because of its being found near the Huon River, in Tasmania. It belongs to the yew family. It furnishes valuable timb...

Dalbergia Sissoo
A tree of northern India, the timber of which is known as Sissum wood. This wood is strong, tenacious, and compact, much used for railw...

Damara Australis
A singular plant of the _Coniferae_ family, called the Kauri pine. It forms a tree 150 to 200 feet in height, and produces a hard, brit...

Dasylirion Acrotrichum
A plant of the pineapple family, from Mexico. The leaves contain a fine fiber, which may be ultimately more extensively utilized than i...

Desmodium Gyrans
An interesting plant of the pea family, called the moving plant, on account of the rotatory motion of the leaflets. These move in all c...

Dialium Acutifolium
The velvet tamarind, so called, from the circumstance that its seed-pods are covered with a beautiful black velvet down. The seeds are ...

Dialium Indum
The tamarind plum, which has a delicious pulp of slightly acid flavor. ...

Dicksonia Antarctica
The large fern tree of Australia. This plant attains the height of 30 or more feet, and its fronds or leaves spread horizontally some 2...

Dieffenbachia Seguina
This has acquired the name of dumb cane, in consequence of its fleshy, cane-like stems, rendering speechless any person who may happen ...

Dillenia Speciosa
An East Indian tree, bearing a fruit which is used in curries and for making jellies. Its slightly acid juice, sweetened with sugar, fo...

Dion Edule
A Mexican plant, bearing large seeds containing a quantity of starch, which is separated and used as arrowroot. ...

Diospyros Ebenum
An East Indian tree which in part yields the black ebony wood of commerce, much used in fancy cabinetwork and turnery, door knobs, pian...

Diospyros Kaki
The Chinese date plum or persimmon. The fruits vary in size from that of a medium-sized apple to that of a large pear; they also vary m...

Dipterix Odorata
This leguminous plant yields the fragrant seed known as Tonka bean, used in scenting snuff and for other purposes of perfumery. The odo...

Dorstenia Contrayerva
A plant from tropical America, the roots of which are used in medicine under the name of Contrayerva root. ...

Dracaena Draco
The Dragon's Blood tree of Teneriffe. This liliaceous plant attains a great age and enormous size. The resin obtained from this tree ha...

Dracaenopsis Australis
Ti or cabbage tree of New Zealand. The whole of this plant is fibrous and has been used for paper making. The juice of the roots and st...

Drimys Winteri
This plant belongs to the magnolia family and furnishes the aromatic tonic known as Winter's bark. It is a native of Chili and the Stra...

Dryobalanops Aromatica
A native of the Island of Sumatra. It furnishes a liquid called camphor oil and a crystalline solid known as Sumatra or Borneo camphor....

Duboisia Hopwoodii
The leaves of this Australian plant are chewed by the natives of Central Australia, just as the Peruvians and Chilians masticate the le...

Durio Zibethinus
A common tree in the Malayan Islands, where its fruit forms a great part of the food of the natives. It is said to have a most deliciou...

Elaeis Guineensis
The African oil palm is a native of southwestern Africa, but has been introduced into other regions. It grows to a height of 20 to 30 f...

Elaeis Melanococca
A palm from tropical America which produces large quantities of oil. ...

Elaeocarpus Hinau
A New Zealand tree, of the linden family. The bark affords an excellent permanent dye, varying from light brown to deep black. The frui...

Elettaria Cardamomum
This plant furnishes the fruits known as the Small or Malabar cardamoms of commerce. The seeds are used medicinally for their cordial a...

Emblica Officinalis
A plant belonging to _Euphorbiaceae_, a native of India. In Borneo the bark and young shoots are used to dye cotton black, for which pu...

Enckea Unguiculata
A plant of the family _Piperaceae_, having an aromatic fruit like a berry, with a thick rind. The roots are used medicinally in Brazil....

Entada Scandens
This leguminous plant has remarkable pods, which often measure 6 or 8 feet in length. The seeds are about 2 inches across, and half an ...

Eriodendron Anfractuosum
The silk-cotton, or God tree of the West Indies. The fruit is a capsule, filled with a beautiful silky fiber, which is very elastic, bu...

Erythrina Caffra
The Kaffir tree of South Africa. The wood is soft and so light as to be used for floating fishing nets. The scarlet seeds are employed ...

Erythrina Umbrosa
This is a favorite tree for growing in masses, for the purpose of sheltering cocoanut plantations, and inducing a proper degree of mois...

Erythroxylon Coca
The leaves of this plant, under the name of coca, are much used by the inhabitants of South America as a masticatory. It forms an artic...

Eucalyptus Amygdalina
The peppermint tree, a native of Tasmania. It produces a thin, transparent oil possessed of a pungent odor resembling oil of lemons, an...

Eucalyptus Gigantea
This stringy bark gum furnishes a strong, durable timber, used for shipbuilding and other purposes. _E. robusta_ contains large cavitie...

Eucalyptus Globulus
The blue gum, a rapid-growing tree, attaining to a large size. Recently it has attracted attention and gained some repute in medicin...

Eugenia Acris
The wild clove or bayberry tree of the West Indies. In Jamaica it is sometimes called the black cinnamon. The refreshing perfume known ...

Eugenia Jambosa
A tropical plant, belonging to the myrtle family, which produces a pleasant rose-flavored fruit, known as the Roseapple, or Jamrosade. ...

Eugenia Pimento
The fruits of this West Indian tree are known in commerce as allspice; the berries have a peculiarly grateful odor and flavor, resembli...

Eugenia Ugni
This small-foliaged myrtaceous plant is a native of Chili. It bears a glossy black fruit, which has an agreeable flavor and perfume,...

Euphorbia Canariensis
This plant grows in abundance in the Canary Islands and Teneriffe, in dry, rocky districts, where little else can grow, and where it at...

Euterpe Edulis
The assai palm of Para. It grows in swampy lands, and produces a small fruit thinly coated with clotted flesh of which the inhabitants ...

Euterpe Montana
The center portion of the upper part of the stem of this West Indian palm, including the leaf bud, is eaten either when cooked as a veg...

Exc[oe]caria Sebifera
This Euphorbiaceous plant is the tallow tree of China. The fruits, are about half an inch in diameter, and each contains three seeds, t...

Exogonium Purga
This plant furnishes the true jalap-tubers of commerce. They owe their well-known purgative properties to their resinous ingredients. V...

Exostemma Caribaeum
This West Indian plant has become naturalized in southern Florida. It belongs to the cinchona family and is known as Jamaica bark. It i...

Feronia Elephantum
The wood apple or elephant apple tree of India, belonging to the family _Aurantiaceae_. It forms a large tree in Ceylon, and yields a h...

Fevillea Cordifolia
The sequa or cacoon antidote of Jamaica. It belongs to the cucumber family, and climbs to a great height up the trunks of trees. The se...

Ficus Elastica
This plant is known as the india-rubber tree. It is a native of the East Indies, and is the chief source of caoutchouc from that quarte...

Ficus Indica
The famous banyan tree of history. Specimens of this Indian fig are mentioned as being of immense size. One in Bengal spreads over a di...

Ficus Religiosa
The pippul tree of the Hindoos, which they hold in such veneration that, if a person cuts or lops off any of the branches, he is looked...

Flacourtia Sepiaria
A bushy shrub, used in India for hedges. Its fruit has a pleasant, subacid flavor when perfectly ripe, but the unripe fruit is extremel...

Fourcroya Cubense
This plant is closely related to the agave, and, like many of that genus, furnishes a fine fiber, which is known in St. Domingo as Cabu...

Franciscea Uniflora
A Brazilian plant called Mercurio vegetal; also known as Manaca. The roots, and to some extent the leaves, are used in medicine; the in...

Fusanus Acuminatus
A small tree of the Cape of Good Hope and Australia. It bears a globular fruit of the size of a small peach, and is known in Australia ...

Galipea Officinalis
This South American tree furnishes Angostura bark, which has important medical properties, some physicians in South America preferring ...

Garcinia Mangostana
This tree produces the tropical fruit called mangosteen, a beautiful fruit, having a thick, succulent rind, which contains an astringen...

Garcinia Morella
It is supposed that Siam gamboge is obtained from this tree, also that known as Ceylon gamboge. The juice is collected by incising the ...

Garcinia Pictoria
A fatty matter known as gamboge butter is procured from the seeds of this tree in Mysore. They are pounded in a stone mortar, then boil...

Gardenia Florida And Gardenia Radicans
Cape Jasmines, so called from a supposition that they were natives of the Cape of Good Hope. The genus belongs to the cinchona family. ...

Gastrolobium Bilobum
A leguminous plant, having poisonous properties. In western Australia, where it is a native, farmers often lose their cattle through th...

Genipa Americana
This belongs to the cinchona family, and produces the fruit called genipap or marmalade box. It is about the size of an orange, and has...

Geonoma Schottiana
A pretty Brazilian palm; the leaves are used for thatching huts, and other parts of the plant are utilized. ...

Gouania Domingensis
A plant of the buckthorn family, known in Jamaica as Chaw-Stick, on account of its thin branches being chewed as an agreeable stomachic...

Grevillea Robusta
The silk oak tree of Australia; a tree that attains a large size, and is remarkable for the graceful beauty of its foliage. ...

Grewia Asiatica
This Indian tree represents a genus of plants of considerable economic value. This particular species yields a profusion of small red f...

Grias Cauliflora
The anchovy pear of Jamaica. The fruit is pickled and eaten like the mango, having a similar taste. ...

Guaiacum Officinale
The wood of this tree is called Lignum Vitae. A resin, called gum guaiacum, exudes from the stem, and is otherwise obtained from the wo...

Guazuma Tomentosa
This plant is nearly allied to the chocolate-nut tree, and yields fruits that abound in mucilage, as also does the bark of the young sh...

Guilielma Speciosa
The peach palm of Venezuela. The fruits are borne in large drooping bunches, and their fleshy outer portion contains starchy matter, wh...

Haematoxylon Campechianum
The logwood tree. This dyestuff is largely used by calico printers and other dyeing manufacturers. It is also used as an ingredient in ...

Hardenbergia Monophylla
An Australian climbing plant of the leguminous family. The long, carrot-shaped, woody root was called, by the early settlers in that co...

Hartighsea Spectabilis
A New Zealand tree, called Wahahe by the natives, who employ the leaves as a substitute for hops, and also prepare from them a spirituo...

Heliconia Bihai
A plant of the order _Musaceae_, from South America. The young shoots are eaten by the natives, and the fruits are also collected and u...

Hevea Brasiliensis
A tree of tropical America growing in damp forests, especially in the Amazon valley, which, together with other trees called siphonia f...

Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis
The flowers of this malvaceous plant contain a quantity of astringent juice, and, when bruised, rapidly turn black or deep purple; they...

Hibiscus Sabdariffa
This species is known in the West Indies as red sorrel, on account of the calyxes and capsules having an acid taste. They are made into...

Hibiscus Tiliaceus
A plant common to many tropical countries. Its wood is extremely light when dry, and is employed by the Polynesians for getting fire by...

Hippomane Mancinella
This is the poisonous manchineel tree of South America and other tropical regions. The virulent nature of the juice of this tree has gi...

Hura Crepitans
This tropical plant is known as the sand-box tree. Its deep-furrowed, rounded, hard-shelled fruit is about the size of an orange, and w...

Hymenaea Courbaril
The locust tree of the West Indies; also called algarroba in tropical regions. This is one of the very largest growing trees known, and...

Hyphaene Thebaica
The doum, or doom palm, or gingerbread of Egypt; it grows also in Nubia, Abyssinia, and Arabia. The fibrous, mealy husks of the seeds a...

Icica Heptaphylla
The incense tree of Guiana, a tall-growing tree, furnishing wood of great durability. It is called cedar wood on account of its fragran...

Ilex Paraguayensis
This is the tea plant of South America, where it occupies the same important position in the domestic economy of the country as the Chi...

Illicium Anisatum
This magnoliaceous plant is a native of China, and its fruit furnishes the star anise of commerce. In China, Japan, and India it is use...

Illicium Floridanum
A native of the Southern States. The leaves are said to be poisonous; hence, the plant is sometimes called poison bag. The bark has bee...

Illicium Religiosum
A Japanese species, which reaches the size of a small tree, and is held sacred by the Japanese, who form wreaths of it with which to de...

Indigofera Tinctoria
The indigo plant, a native of Asia, but cultivated and naturalized in many countries. The use of indigo as a dye is of great antiquity....

Ipom[oe]a Purga
A species of jalap is obtained from this convolvulaceous plant; this is a resinous matter contained in the juices. ...

Iriartella Setigera
A South American palm growing in the underwood of the forests on the Amazon and Rio Negro. The Indians use its slender stems for making...

Jambosa Malaccensis
This Indian plant belongs to the myrtle family. It produces a good-sized edible fruit known as the Malay apple. ...

Jasminum Sambac Trifoliatum
A native of South America. The flowers are very fragrant, and an essential oil, much used in perfumery under the name of jasmine oil, i...

Jatropha Clauca
An East Indian plant the seeds of which when crushed furnish an oil which is used in medicine. ...

Jatropha Curcas
The physic nut tree of tropical America. This plant contains a milky, acrid, glutinous juice, which forms a permanent stain when droppe...

Jubaea Spectabilis
The coquito palm of Chili. The seed or nut is called cokernut, and has a pleasant, nutty taste. These are used by the Chilian confectio...

Kaempferia Galanga
This plant belongs to the family of gingers. The root stocks have an aromatic fragrance and are used medicinally in India as well as in...

Kigelia Pinnata
This plant is interesting from the circumstance of its being held sacred in Nubia, where the inhabitants celebrate their religious fest...

Krameria Triandra
This is one of the species that yield the rhatany roots of commerce. In Peru an extract is made from this species, which is a mild, eas...

Kydia Calycina
An Indian plant of the family _Byttneriaceae_. The bark is employed in infusion as a sudorific and in cutaneous diseases, and its fibro...

Lagetta Lintearia
The lace-bark tree of Jamaica. The inner bark consists of numerous concentric layers of fibers, which interlace in all directions, and ...

Lansium Domesticum
A low-growing tree of the East Indies, which is cultivated to some extent for its fruit, which is known in Java and Malacca as lanseh f...

Lapageria Rosea
A twining plant from Chili. The flowers are very beautiful, and are succeeded by berries, which are said to be sweet and eatable. Th...

Latania Rubra
A very beautiful palm from the Mauritius. The fruit contains a small quantity of pulp, which is eaten by the natives, but is not consid...

Lawsonia Inermis
This is the celebrated henna of the East. The use of the powdered leaves as a cosmetic is very general in Asia and northern Africa, the...

Lecythis Ollaria
This tree produces the hard urn-shaped fruits known in Brazil as monkey cups. The seeds are eatable and sold as Sapucaia nuts. The frui...

Leptospermum Lanigerum
A plant known throughout Australia as Captain Cook's tea tree, from the circumstance that, on the first landing of this navigator in th...

Licuala Acutifida
This palm is a native of the island of Pulo-Penango, and yields canes known by the curious name of Penang Lawyers. It is a low-growing ...

Limonia Acidissima
An East India shrub which produces round fruits about the size of damson plums, of a yellowish color, with reddish or purplish tints. T...

Livistona Australis
This is one of the few palms found in Australia. The unexpanded leaves, prepared by being scalded and dried in the shade, are used for ...

Lucuma Mammosum
This sapotaceous plant is cultivated for its fruit, which is called marmalade, on account of its containing a thick agreeably flavored ...

Maba Geminata
The ebony wood of Queensland. The heart wood is black, and the outside wood of a bright red color. It is close-grained, hard, heavy, el...

Macadamia Ternifolia
An Australian tree which produces an edible nut called the Queensland nut. This fruit is about the size of a walnut, and within a thick...

Machaerium Firmum
A South American tree which furnishes a portion of the rosewood of commerce. Various species of the genus, under the common Brazilian n...

Maclura Tinctoria
The fustic tree. Large quantities of the bright yellow wood of this tree are exported from South America for the use of dyers, who obta...

Macropiper Methysticum
A plant of the pepper family, which furnishes the root called Ava by the Polynesians. It has narcotic properties, and is employed medic...

Macrozamia Denisonii
An Australian cycad, the seeds of which contain a large amount of farina, or starchy matter, which formerly supplied a considerable amo...

Malpighia Glabra
A low-growing tree of the West Indies, which produces an edible fruit called the Barbadoes cherry. ...

Mammea Americana
The fruit of this tree, under the name of mammee apple, is very much esteemed in tropical countries. It often attains a size of 6 or 8 ...

Manettia Cordifolia
This climbing-plant is a native of South America, and belongs to the family of _Cinchonaceae_. The rind of the root has emetic properti...

Mangifera Indica
The mango, in some of its varieties esteemed as the most delicious of tropical fruits, while many varieties produce fruit whose texture...

Manicaria Saccifera
Bussu palm of South America. Its large leaves are used for thatching roofs, for which purpose they are well fitted and very durable. Th...

Manihot Utilissima
This euphorbiaceous plant yields cassava or mandiocca meal. It is extensively cultivated in tropical climates and supplies a great amou...

Maranta Arundinacea
The arrowroot plant, cultivated for its starch. The tubers being reduced to pulp with water, the fecula subsides, and is washed and dri...

Mauritia Flexuosa
The Moriche, or Ita palm, very abundant on the banks of the Amazon, Rio Negro, and Orinoco Rivers. In the delta of the latter it occupi...

Maximiliana Regia
An Amazonian palm called Inaja. The spathes are so hard that, when filled with water, they will stand the fire, and are sometimes used ...

Melaleuca Minor
A native of Australia and the islands of the Indian Ocean. The leaves, being fermented, are distilled, and yield an oil known as cajupu...

Melicocca Bijuga
This sapindaceous tree is plentiful in tropical America and the West Indies, and is known as the Genip tree. It produces numerous green...

Melocactus Communis
Commonly called the Turk's Cap cactus, from the flowering portion on the top of the plant being of a cylindrical form and red color, li...

Mesembryanthemum Crystallinum
The ice plant, so called in consequence of every part of the plant being covered with small watery pustules, which glisten in the sun l...

Mikania Guaco
A composite plant which has gained some notoriety as the supposed Cundurango, the cancer-curing bark. It has long been supposed to supp...

Mimusops Balata
The Bully tree. This sapotaceous plant attains a great size in Guiana and affords a dense, close-grained, valuable timber. Its small fr...

Mimusops Elengi
A native of Ceylon, where its hard, heavy, durable timber is used for building purposes. The seed also affords a great amount of oil. ...

Monodora Grandiflora
An African plant belonging to the Anonaceae. It produces large fruit, which contains a large quantity of seeds about the size of the Sc...

Monstera Deliciosa
This is a native of southern Mexico and yields a delicious fruit with luscious pineapple flavor. The outer skin of the fruit, if eaten,...

Moringa Pterygosperma
A native of the East Indies, where it bears the name of horse-radish tree. The seeds are called ben nuts and supply a fluid oil, highly...

Moronobea Coccinea
The hog gum tree, which attains the height of 100 feet. A fluid juice exudes from incisions in the trunk and hardens into a yellow resi...

Mucuna Pruriens
A tall climbing plant of the West Indies and other warm climates. It is called the cowage, or cow-itch, on account of the seed pods bei...

Murraya Exotica
A Chinese plant of the orange family. The fruit is succulent, and the white flowers are very fragrant. They are used in perfumery. ...

Musa Cavendishii
This is a valuable dwarf species of the banana from southern China. It bears a large truss of fine fruit, and is cultivated to some ext...

Musa Ensete
This Abyssinian species forms large foliage of striking beauty. The food is dry and uneatable; but the base of the flower stalk is eate...

Musa Sapientum
The banana plant. This has been cultivated and used as food in tropical countries from very remote times, and furnishes enormous quanti...

Musa Textilis
This furnishes the fiber known as manilla hemp, and is cultivated in the Philippine Islands for this product. The finer kinds of the fi...

Mussaenda Frondosa
This cinchonaceous plant is a native of Ceylon. The bark and leaves are esteemed as tonic and febrifuges in the Mauritius, where they a...

Myristica Moschata
The nutmeg tree. The seed of this plant is the nutmeg of commerce, and mace is the seed cover of the same. When the nuts are gathered t...

Myrospermum Peruiferum
This plant yields the drug known as balsam of Peru, which is procured by making incisions in the bark, into which cotton rags are thrus...

Myrospermum Toluiferum
A South American tree, also called Myroxylon, which yields the resinous drug called balsam of Tolu. This substance is fragrant, having ...

Myrtus Communis The Common Myrtle This Plant Is Supposed To Be A
native of western Asia, but now grows abundantly in Italy, Spain, and the south of France. Among the ancients the myrtle was held sacre...

Nandina Domestica
A shrub belonging to the family of berberries. It is a native of China and Japan, where it is extensively cultivated for its fruits. It...

Nauclea Gambir
A native of the Malayan Islands, which yields the Gambir, or Terra Japonica of commerce. This is prepared by boiling the leaves in wate...

Nectandra Leucantha
The greenheart, or bibiru tree of British Guiana, furnishing bibiru bark, which is used medicinally as a tonic and febrifuge, its prope...

Nepenthes Distillatoria
This pitcher plant is a native of Ceylon. The pitchers are partly filled with water before they open; hence it was supposed to be produ...

Nephelium Litchi
This sapindaceous tree produces one of the valued indigenous fruits of China. There are several varieties; the fruit is round, about an...

Nerium Oleander
This is a well-known plant, often seen in cultivation, and seemingly a favorite with many. It belongs to a poisonous family and is a da...

Notelaea Ligustrina
The Tasmanian iron wood tree. It is of medium growth and furnishes wood that is extremely hard and dense, and used for making sheaves f...

Ochroma Lagopus
A tree that grows about 40 feet high, along the seashores in the West Indies and Central America, and known as the cork wood. The wood ...

[oe]nocarpus Batava
A South American palm, which yields a colorless, sweet-tasted oil, used in Para for adulterating olive oil, being nearly as good for th...

Olea Europaea
The European olive, which is popularly supposed to furnish _all_ the olive oil of commerce. It is a plant of slow growth and of as slow...

Ophiocaryon Paradoxum
The snake nut tree of Guiana, so called on account of the curious form of the embryo of the seed, which is spirally twisted, so as to c...

Ophiorrhiza Mungos
A plant belonging to the cinchona family, the roots of which are reputed to cure snake bites. They are intensely bitter, and from this ...

Ophioxylon Serpentinum
A native of the East Indies, where the roots are used in medicine as a febrifuge and alexipharmic. ...

Opuntia Cochinellifera
A native of Mexico, where it is largely cultivated in what are called the Nopal plantations for the breeding of the cochineal insect. T...

Opuntia Tuna
This plant is a native of Mexico and South America generally. It reaches a height of 15 to 20 feet and bears reddish-colored flowers, f...

Oreodaphne Californica
The mountain laurel, or spice bush, of California. When bruised it emits a strong, spicy odor, and the Spanish Americans use the leaves...

Oreodoxa Oleracea
The West Indian cabbage palm, which sometimes attains the height of 170 feet, with a straight cylindrical trunk. The semicylindrical po...

Ormosia Dasycarpa
This is the West Indian bead tree, or necklace tree, the seeds of which are roundish, beautifully polished, and of a bright scarlet col...

Osmanthus Fragrans
This plant has long been cultivated as _Olea fragrans_. The flowers have a fine fragrance, and are used by the Chinese to perfume tea. ...

Pachira Alba
A South American tree the inner bark of which furnishes a strong useful fiber, employed in the manufacture of ropes and various kinds o...

Pandanus Utilis
The screw pine of the Mauritius, where it is largely cultivated for its leaves, which are manufactured into bags or sacks for the expor...

Pappea Capensis
A small tree of the soapberry or sapindaceous family, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where the fruit is known as the wild plum, fro...

Papyrus Antiquorum
The paper-reed of Asia, which yielded the substances used as paper by the ancient Egyptians. The underground root-stocks spread horizon...

Paritium Elatum
The mountain mahoe, a malvaceous plant, that furnishes the beautiful lace-like bark called Cuba bast, imported by nurserymen for tying ...

Parkia Africana
The African locust tree, producing seeds which the natives of Soudan roast, and then bruise and allow to ferment in water until they be...

Parkinsonia Aculeata
This leguminous plant is called Jerusalem Thorn. Although a native of Southern Texas and Mexico, it is found in many tropical countries...

Parmentiera Cereifera
In the Isthmus of Panama this plant is termed the Candle tree, because its fruits, often 4 feet long, look like yellow candles suspende...

Passiflora Quadrangularis
The fruit of this plant is the Granadilla of the tropics. The pulp has an agreeable though rather mawkish taste. The root is said to po...

Paullinia Sorbilis
The seeds of this climbing sapindaceous plant furnish the famous guarana of the Amazon and its principal tributaries. The ripe seeds, w...

Pavetta Borbonica
This belongs to the quinine family. The roots are bitter, and are employed as a purgative; the leaves are also used medicinally. ...

Pedilanthus Tithymaloides
This euphorbiaceous plant has an acrid, milky, bitter juice; the root is emetic, and the dried branches are used medicinally. ...

Pereskia Aculeata
The Barbadoes gooseberry, which belongs to the family _Cactaceae_. It grows about 15 feet in height, and produces yellow-colored, eatab...

Persea Gratissima
The avocado or alligator pear, a common tree in the West Indies. The fruits are pear-shaped, covered with a brownish-green or purple sk...

Ph[oe]nix Dactylifera
The date palm, very extensively grown for its fruit, which affords the principal food for a large portion of the inhabitants of Africa,...

Phormium Tenax
This plant is called New Zealand flax, on account of the leaves containing a large quantity of strong, useful fiber, which is used b...

Photinia Japonica
The Japanese Medlar, or Chinese Lo-quat. It bears a small oval fruit of an orange color when ripe, having a pleasant subacid flavor. It...

Physostigma Venenosum
A strong leguminous plant, the seeds of which are highly poisonous, and are employed by the natives of Old Calabar as an ordeal. Person...

Phytelephas Macrocarpa
The vegetable ivory plant, a native of the northern parts of South America. The fruit consists of a collection of six or seven drupes; ...

Picrasma Excelsa
This yields the bitter wood known as Jamaica Quassia. The tree is common in Jamaica, where it attains the height of 50 feet. The wood i...

Pinckneya Pubens
This cinchonaceous plant is a native of the Southern States and has a reputation as an antiperiodic. It is stated that incomplete exami...

Piper Betel
This plant belongs to the _Piperaceae_. Immense quantities of the leaves of this plant are chewed by the Malays. It tinges the saliva a...

Piper Nigrum
This twining shrub yields the pepper of commerce. It is cultivated in the East and West Indies, Java, etc., the Malabar being held in t...

Pistacia Lentiscus
The mastic tree, a native of southern Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia. Mastic is the resin of the tree and is obtained by mak...

Pistacia Terebinthus
The Cyprus turpentine tree. The turpentine flows from incisions made in the trunk and soon becomes thick and tenacious, and ultimately ...

Pistacia Vera
The pistacia tree, which yields the eatable pistachio nuts. It is a native of western Asia. The nuts are greatly eaten by the Turks and...

Pithecolobium Saman
This leguminous plant yields eatable pods, which are fed to cattle in Brazil. Some Mexican species produce pods that are boiled and eat...

Pittosporum Undulatum
A plant from New Zealand, which reaches a considerable size, and furnishes a wood similar to boxwood. The flowers are very fragrant. ...

Plagianthus Betulinus
The inner bark of the young branches of this plant yields a very fine fiber, sometimes called New Zealand cotton, though more like flax...

Platonia Insignis
A Brazilian tree which bears a fruit known in that country as Pacoury-uva. The pulp of this fruit is semiacid, very delicious, and is e...

Plumbago Scandens
The root of this plant is called Herbe du Diable in San Domingo; it is acrid in the highest degree, and is a most energetic blistering ...

Plumeria Alba
A South American plant. The flowers are used in perfumery, and furnish the scent known as Frangipane or Frangipani. In Jamaica the plan...

Pogostemon Patchouly
This plant affords the celebrated patchouli perfume. The peculiar odor of patchouli is disagreeable to some, but is very popular with m...

Pongamia Glabra
Some years ago this tree was recommended as suitable for avenue-planting in the south of France. In India an oil called poonga is expre...

Portlandia Grandiflora
This plant belongs to the cinchonaceous family, and is said to possess properties similar to those of the true cinchona. The bark is ex...

Psidium Cattleyanum
This is the purple guava from China. The fruits are filled with juicy, pale flesh, of a very agreeable acid-sweet flavor. ...

Psidium Pyriferum
The West Indian guava, a well-known fruit in the tropics, but only known here in the shape of guava jelly. The wood of the tree has a f...

Psychotria Leucantha
A plant belonging to the cinchona family. Emetic properties are assigned to the roots, which are also used in dyeing. Native of Peru. ...

Pterocarpus Marsupium
This tree affords gum-kino, which is obtained by making incisions in the bark, from which the juice exudes and hardens into a brittle m...

Punica Granatum
The pomegranate, a native of northern Africa and western Asia. The fruit is valued in warm countries on account of its delicious coolin...

Quassia Amara
The wood of this plant furnishes Surinam quassia. It is destitute of smell, but has an intensely bitter taste, and is used as a tonic. ...

Quillaja Saponaria
The Quillai or Cully of the Chilians. Its bark is called soap-bark, and is rough and dark-colored externally, but internally consists o...

Randia Aculeata
A small tree native of the West Indies, also found in southern Florida. In the West Indies the fruit is used for producing a blue dye, ...

Raphia Taedigera
The Jupati palm. The leaf-stalks of this plant are used by the natives of the Amazon for a variety of purposes, such as constructing in...

Ravenala Madagascariensis
This plant is called the Traveler's tree, probably on account of the water which is stored up in the large cup-like sheaths of the leaf...

Rhapis Flabelliformis
The ground rattan palm. This is supposed to yield the walking-canes known as rattan, which is doubted. It is a native of southern China...

Rhizophora Mangle
This plant is known as the mangrove, possibly because no man can live in the swampy groves that are covered with it in tropical countri...

Rottlera Tinctoria
This plant belongs to the order _Euphorbiaceae_, and reaches the size of a small tree in the Indian Archipelago and southern Australia....

Ruellia Indigotica
This small bush is extensively cultivated in China for the preparation of a blue coloring-matter of the nature of indigo. The pigment i...

Sabal Adansonii
This dwarf palm is a native of the Southern States. The leaves are made into fans, and the soft interior of the stem is edible. ...

Sabal Umbraculifera
This is a West Indian palm; the leaves are used for various purposes, such as making mats, huts, etc. ...

Saccharum Officinarum
The sugar cane. Where the sugar cane was first cultivated is unknown, but it is supposed to have been in the East Indies, for the Venet...

Red Sea Prior To The Year 1 It Is Supposed To Have Been
introduced into the islands of Sicily, Crete, Rhodes, and Cyprus by the Saracens, as abundance of sugar was made in these islands previ...

1497 And 15 It Was Cultivated Afterwards In Spain In Valentia
Granada, and Murcia by the Moors. In the fifteenth century it was introduced into the Canary Islands by the Spaniards and to Madeira by...

In The Year 1610 And In Jamaica In 16 Its Culture Has Since
become general in warm climates and its use universal. ...

Saguerus Saccharifer
The arenga palm, which is of great value to the Malays. The black horsehair like fiber surrounding its leaf-stalks is made into cordage...

Sagus Rumphii
This palm produces the sago of commerce, which is prepared from the soft inner portion of the trunk. It is obtained by cutting the trun...

Salvadora Persica
This is supposed to be the plant that produced the mustard seed spoken of in the Scriptures. ...

Sandoricum Indicum
A tropical tree, sometimes called the Indian sandal tree, which produces a fruit like an apple, of agreeable acid flavor. The root of t...

Sanseviera Guineensis
Called the African bowstring hemp, from the fibers of the leaves being used for bowstrings. ...

Santalum Album
This tree yields the true sandalwood of India. This fragrant wood is in two colors, procured from the same tree; the yellow-colored woo...

Sapindus Saponaria
The soapberry tree. The fruit of this plant is about the size of a large gooseberry, the outer covering or shell of which contains a sa...

Sapium Indicum
A widely distributed Asiatic tree which yields an acrid, milky juice, which, as also the leaves of the plant, furnishes a kind of dye. ...

Sapota Achras
The fruit of this plant is known in the West Indies as the sapodilla plum. It is highly esteemed by the inhabitants; the bark of the tr...

Sapota Mulleri
The bully or balata tree of British Guiana, which furnishes a gum somewhat intermediate between India rubber and gutta-percha, being ne...

Schinus Molle
The root of this plant is used medicinally and the resin that exudes from the tree is employed to astringe the gums. The leaves are so ...

Schotia Speciosa
A small tree of South Africa called Boerboom at the Cape of Good Hope. The seeds or beans are cooked and eaten as food. The bark is use...

Seaforthia Elegans
This palm is a native of the northern part of Australia, where it is utilized by the natives. The seeds have a granular fibrous rind, a...

Selaginella Lepidophylla
This species of club moss is found in southern California, and has remarkable hygrometric qualities. Its natural growth is in circular ...

Semecarpus Anacardium
The marking nut tree of India. The thick, fleshy receptacle bearing the fruit is of a yellow color when ripe, and is roasted and eaten....

Serissa F[oe]tida
A cinchonaceous shrub, having strong astringent properties. The roots are employed in cases of diarrhea, also in ophthalmia and certain...

Shorea Robusta
This tree produces the Saul wood of India, which has a very high reputation, and is extensively employed for all engineering purposes w...

Sida Pulchella
A plant of the mallow family; the bark contains fibrous tissues available for the manufacture of cordage. The root of _S. acuta_ is est...

Simaba Cedron
A native of New Grenada, where it attains the size of a small tree, and bears a large fruit containing one seed; this seed, which looks...

Simaruba Officinalis
This tree yields the drug known as Simaruba bark, which is, strictly speaking, the rind of the root. It is a bitter tonic. It is known ...

Siphonia Elastica
The South American rubber plant, from which a great portion of the caoutchouc of commerce is obtained. There are several species of sip...

Smilax Medica
This plant yields _Mexican_ sarsaparilla, so called to distinguish it from the many other kinds of this drug. The plant is a climber, s...

Spondias Mombin
This yields an eatable fruit called hog plum in the West Indies. The taste is said to be peculiar, and not very agreeable to strangers....

Strelitzia Reginae
A plant of the Musa or banana family. The flowers are very beautiful for the genus. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. The seeds ...

Strychnos Nux-vomica
This is a native of the Coromandel coast and Cochin-China. It bears an orange-like fruit, containing seeds that have an intensely bitte...

Swietenia Mahagoni
This South American plant furnishes the timber known in commerce as mahogany. The bark is considered a febrifuge, and the seeds prepare...

Tacca Pinnatifida
This is sometimes called South Sea arrowroot. The tubers contain a great amount of starch, which is obtained by rasping them and macera...

Tamarindus Indica
The tamarind tree. There are two varieties of this species. The East Indian variety has long pods, with six to twelve seeds. The variet...

Tanghinia Venenifera
This plant is a native of Madagascar, and of the family _Apocynaceae_. Formerly, when the custom of trial by ordeal was more prevalent ...

Tasmannia Aromatica
The bark of this plant possesses aromatic qualities, closely resembling Winter's bark. The small black fruits are used as a substitute ...

Tectona Grandis
The teak tree. Teak wood has been extensively employed for shipbuilding in the construction of merchant vessels and ships of war; its g...

Terminalia Catappa
The astringent fruits of this tropical plant are employed for tanning and dyeing, and are sometimes met with in commerce under the name...

Tetranthera Laurifolia
This plant is widely dispersed over tropical Asia and the islands of the Eastern Archipelago. Its leaves and young branches abound in a...

Thea Viridis
This is the China tea plant, whose native country is undetermined. All kinds and grades of the teas of commerce are made from this spec...

Theobroma Cacao
This plant produces the well-known cacao, or chocolate, and is very extensively cultivated in South America and the West India Islands....

Theophrasta Jussiaei
A native of St. Domingo, where it is sometimes called Le petit Coca. The fruit is succulent, and bread is made from the seeds. ...

Thespesia Populnea
A tropical tree, belonging to the mallow family. The inner bark of the young branches yields a tough fiber, fit for cordage, and used i...

Thevetia Neriifolia
This shrubby plant is common in the West Indies and in many parts of Central America. Its bark abounds in a poisonous milky juice, and ...

Thrinax Argentea
This beautiful palm is called the Silver Thatch palm of Jamaica, and is said to yield the leaves so extensively used in the manufacture...

Tillandsia Zebrina
A South American plant of the pineapple family; the bottle-like cavity at the base of the leaves will sometimes contain a pint or more ...

Tinospora Cordifolia
A climbing plant, so tenacious of life that when the stem is cut across or broken, a rootlet is speedily sent down from above, which co...

Triphasia Trifoliata
A Chinese shrub, with fruit about the size of hazelnuts, red-skinned, and of an agreeable sweet taste; when green, they have a strong f...

Tristania Neriifolia
A myrtaceous plant from Australia, called the turpentine tree, owing to its furnishing a fluid resembling that product. ...

Urceola Elastica
A plant belonging to the _Apocynaceae_, a native of the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, where its milky juice, collected by making incis...

Urena Lobata
A malvaceous plant, possessing mucilaginous properties, for which it is used medicinally. The bark affords an abundance of fiber, resem...

Uvaria Odoratissima
An Indian plant which is supposed to yield the essential oil called Ylang-Ylang, or Alan-gilan. This oil is obtained by distillation fr...

Vangueria Edulis
A cinchonaceous plant, the fruits of which are eaten in Madagascar under the name of Voa-vanga. The leaves are used in medicine. ...

Vanilla Planifolia
The vanilla plant, which belongs to the orchid family. The fruit is used by confectioners and others for flavoring creams, liquors, and...

Vateria Indica
This plant yields a useful gum resin, called Indian copal, piney varnish, white dammar, or gum anine. The resin is procured by cutting ...

Weinmannia Racemosa
A New Zealand tree called Towhia by the natives of that country. Its bark is used for tanning purposes, and as a red and brown dye, whi...

Wrightia Tinctoria
The leaves of this plant furnish an inferior kind of indigo. The wood is beautifully white, close-grained, and ivory-like, and is much ...

Xanthorrh[oe]a Arborea
The grass gum tree of Australia, also called black boy. This is a liliaceous plant, which produces a long flower-stalk, bearing at the ...

Ximenia Americana
A small tree, found in many warm regions; among others in southern Florida. In Brazil it is called the Native Plum on account of its sm...

Yucca Al[oe]folia
The yucca leaves afford a good fiber, and some southern species are known as _bear's grass_. The root stems also furnish a starchy matt...

Zamia Furfuracea
This plant belongs to the order _Cycadaceae_, and is grown to some extent for the starchy matter contained in the stem, which is collec...

Zamia Integrifolia
The coontie plant of Florida. The large succulent roots afford a quantity of arrowroot, said to be equal to the best of that from Bermu...

Zingiber Officinale
This plant is cultivated in most warm countries for the sake of its rhizomes, which furnish the spice called ginger. It is prepared by ...


Vegetables

The Culture Of Vegetables
Horticulture has a full share in the progressive character of the age. Changes have been effected in the Kitchen Garden which are qu...

Globe Artichoke
Cynara Scolymus The Globe Artichoke is grown mainly for the sake of its flower-heads which make a delightful dish when cooked while...

Jerusalem Artichoke
Helianthus tuberosus The Jerusalem Artichoke is a member of the Sunflower tribe, quite hardy, and productive of wholesome roots tha...

Asparagus
Asparagus officinalis Asparagus is a liliaceous plant of perennial duration, and it demands more generous treatment than the majori...

Broad Bean
Faba vulgaris The Broad Bean is a thrifty plant, as hardy as any in the garden, and very accommodating as to soil. It is quite at h...

Dwarf French Bean
Phaseolus vulgaris Among summer vegetables Dwarf French Beans are deservedly in high favour, and are everywhere sown at the earlies...

Climbing French Bean
The Climbing French Bean has all the merits of the Dwarf French Bean, and the climbing habit not only extends the period of bearing bu...

Haricot Bean
Although in France the term Haricot is given to all types of Beans, except those of the English Broad Bean, in this country the word ...

Runner Bean
Phaseolus multiflorus Runner beans need generous cultivation and will amply repay for the most liberal treatment. The main point to...

Waxpod Bean
Many visitors to the Continent have learned to appreciate the fine qualities of the Waxpod Beans, sometimes known as Butter Beans, the...

Garden Beet
Beta vulgaris As a food plant the Beet scarcely obtains the attention it deserves. There is no lack of appreciation of its beauty f...

Broccoli
Brassica oleracea botrytis asparagoides The great importance of this crop is indicated by the long list of varieties and the still ...

Brussels Sprouts
Brassica oleracea bullata gemmifera Brussels Sprouts are everywhere regarded as the finest autumnal vegetable of the strictly green...

Cabbage
Brassica oleracea capitata The Cabbage is a great subject, and competes with the Potato for pre-eminence in the cottage garden, in ...

Savoy Cabbage
Brassica oleracea bullata The Savoy Cabbage is directly related to Brussels Sprouts, though differing immensely in appearance. It i...

Cardoon
Cynara Cardunculus This plant is nearly related to the Globe Artichoke, and it makes a stately appearance when allowed to flower. A...

Carrot
Daucus Carota The Carrot is a somewhat fastidious root, for although it is grown in every garden, it is not everywhere produced in ...

Cauliflower
Brassica oleracea botrytis cauliflora This fine vegetable is managed in much the same way as Broccoli, and it requires similar cond...

Celery
Apium graveolens Celery is everywhere esteemed, not only as a salad, but as a wholesome and delicious vegetable. The crop requires ...

Chicory
Cichorium Intybus A valuable addition to the supply of winter and spring roots. When stewed and served with melted butter, Chicory ...

Corn Salad
Valerianella olitoria Corn Salad, or Lamb's Lettuce, so often seen on Continental tables, is comparatively unknown in this country....

Couve Tronchuda
Brassica oleracea costata Couve Tronchuda, or Portugal Cabbage, is a fine vegetable that should be grown in every garden, including...

Cress
Lepidium sativum Cress is best grown in small lots from frequent sowings, and the sorts should be kept separate, and, if possible...

Cucumber
Cucumis sativus The Cucumber is everywhere valued. Its exceeding usefulness explains its popularity, and happily the plant is of ...

Dandelion
Taraxacum officinale As a salad Dandelion has won general esteem for its wholesome medicinal qualities. Nature teaches the way to g...

Egg Plant (aubergine)
Solatium Melongena, S. esculentum In this country the Egg Plant is generally grown merely as an ornament, but it is a delicious veg...

Endive
Cichorium Endivia As a result of the growing taste for wholesome salads Endive has considerably advanced in public esteem. The flav...

Garlic
Allium sativura The mode of culture advised for Shallots will suit Garlic also, except that the latter should be planted in Februar...

Herbs
With certain exceptions, the growing of Sweet Herbs from seeds is altogether advantageous. The plants come perfectly true, and are so ...

Horseradish
Cochlearia Armoracia This vegetable is highly prized as a condiment to roast beef, but as a rule it is badly grown. The common prac...

Kohl Rabi (knol Kohl)
Brassica oleracea Caulo-rapa Kohl Rabi, or Knol Kohl, is comparatively little grown in this country, because we can almost always c...

Leek
Allium Porrum The leek is not so fully appreciated in the southern parts of England as it is in the North, and in Scotland and Wale...

Lettuce
Lactuca sativa The lettuce is the king of salads, and as a cooked vegetable it has its value; but as it does not compete with the P...

Melon
Cucumis Melo The popularity of this cool and delicious fruit has in recent years been greatly enhanced by increased knowledge as to...

Mercury
Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus This perfectly hardy vegetable, known also by the name of Good King Henry, is much grown in Lincolnshire...

Mushroom
Agaricus campestris The Mushroom has many friends among all classes, few benevolent neutrals, and fewer still who are absolutely ho...

Mustard
Sinapis alba, and S. nigra Mustard is much valued as a pungent salad, and for mixing in the bowl it may take the place of Water C...

Onion
Allium Cepa The onion has the good fortune to be generally appreciated and well grown almost everywhere. It enhances the flavour ...

Parsnip
Pastinaca sativa The Parsnip is one of the most profitable roots the earth produces. Probably its sweet flavour imposes a limit o...

Garden Pea
Pisum sativum Thanks to the skill and enterprise of enthusiastic specialists, we have now the wrinkled as well as the round-seeded ...

Potato
Solarium tuberosum The potato has been designated the 'King of the Kitchen Garden,' and perhaps 'the noble tuber' should be so rega...

Radish
Raphanus sativus The Radish is often badly grown through being sown too thickly, or on lumpy ground, or in places not favourable to...

Rhubarb
Rheum hybridum RHUBARB is so much valued that we need not recommend it. There are some remarkably fine sorts in cultivation, adapte...

Salads
Although the art of making Salads is to some extent understood in this country, it must be admitted that much has yet to be learned fr...

Salsify
Tragopogon porrifolius Salsify may be sown from the end of March to May, but two sowings will in most cases be sufficient. Drill th...

Scorzonera
Scorzonera hispanica Scorzonera is not much grown in this country, but as it is prized on the Continent, it might be introduced to ...

Sea Kale
Crambe maritima Many persons prefer Sea Kale to Asparagus, but the two differ so widely in flavour and general character that no co...

Shallot
Allium ascalonicum The old-fashioned mode of culture is to plant on the shortest, and lift the crop on the longest, day; but that...

Spinach
Spinacia oleracea Spinach plays an important part in the economy of the dinner table. There are unfortunate beings who cannot eat i...

Stachys Tuberifera
This vegetable is commonly known as the Chinese Artichoke, and from the peculiar form it is also called Spirals. A wide difference o...

Strawberry
Fragaria Probably the first thought will be that the Strawberry is a fruit, and that the consideration of its treatment is out of...

Sunflower
Helianthus annuus Although the Sunflower is not utilised as food for man, the plant is frequently grown in the Kitchen Garden, pa...

Tomato
Lycopersicum esculentum The taste for Tomatoes often begins with a little antipathy, but it is soon acquired, and not infrequentl...

Turnip
Brassica Rapa The Turnip is not a difficult garden crop; indeed, the simplest management will produce an ample supply, and any fa...

Vegetable Marrow
Cucurbita Pepo ovifera The Vegetable Marrow does not, in a general way, obtain the right kind of attention in gardens. It is very...

A Year's Work In The Vegetable Garden
The following monthly notes are not intended to supersede the detailed instructions on the several kinds of Vegetables which appear ...

January
Work in the garden during the opening month of the year is entirely dependent on the weather, and it is futile to enter on a vain co...

February
The work of this month is to be carried on as weather permits, but with greater activity and more confidence, for the sun is fast ga...

March
This is the great season for garden work, and the gardener must be up with the lark and go to bed with the robin, which is the lates...

April
Vegetation is now in full activity, the temperature increases rapidly, frosts are less frequent, and showers and sunshine alternate ...

May
High-Pressure times continue, for the heat increases daily, and the season of production is already shortened by two months. The mos...

June
To some extent the crops will now take care of themselves, and we may consider the chief anxieties and activities of the season over...

July
For gardeners July is in one respect like January; everything depends on the weather. It may be hot, with frequent heavy rains, and ...

August
The importance of summer-sown Vegetables and Salads is dealt with under July, and seeds of most of the subjects there named may stil...

September
Weeds will be troublesome to the overworked and the idle gardener, while the best-kept land will be full of seeds blown upon it from...

October
Weeds and falling leaves are the plagues of the season. It may seem that they do no harm, but assuredly they are directly injurious ...

November
The remarks already made on the necessity for tidiness and the quick disposal of all decaying refuse apply as forcibly to this month...

December
The best advice that can be given for this month is to be prepared for either heavy rain or sharp frost, so that extreme variations ...

The Rotation Of Crops In The Vegetable Garden
This is a subject worthy the attention of those who aim at the largest possible production and the highest possible quality of every...

The Chemistry Of Garden Crops
A Consideration of the chemistry of the crops that engage attention in this country will afford an explanation of one great differen...

Artificial Manures And Their Application To Garden Crops
Plants, like animals, require food for their sustenance and development, and when this is administered in insufficient quantities, o...

Asparagus
A dressing of dung 2 lb. nitrate of soda 3-1/2 to 4 lb. superphosphate 3 lb kainit The kainit contains a consid...

Broccoli And Cauliflower
With dung. 2 to 3 lb. nitrate of soda 2 to 3 lb. superphosphate 3/4 lb. sulphate of potash Without dung. 4 to 5 lb. nitrate of s...

Lettuce
With dung. 3 to 4 lb. superphosphate 1/2 to 1 lb. nitrate of soda Without dung. 3 to 4 lb. superphosphate 1 to 1-1/2 lb. nitrate...

Spinach
With dung. 3 to 4 lb. superphosphate 2 to 3 lb. nitrate of soda Without dung 4 to 5 lb. superphosphate 1 lb. sulphate of potash ...

The Culture Of Flowers From Seeds
Whether the modern demand for flowers has created the supply, or the supply has found an appreciative public, we need not stay to di...

White, And Cream Shades
...

Tall
Chrysanthemum coronarium, Princess May ... ... ... 3 Chrysanthemum coronarium, Double white ... ... ... 3 Cornflowe...

Medium
Clarkia elegans, Snowball ... 2 Lupinus Hartwegii, White ... 2 Malope, White ... ... ... 2 Poppy, White Swan ... ...

Dwarf
Acroclinium, Single White ... 1 Candytuft, Improved White Spiral 1 Clarkia, Dwarf white ... ... 1 " Double dwarf white ...

Yellow And Orange Shades
...

Tall
Sunflower, Giant Yellow ... ... 10 " Primrose Perfection ... 6 " Miniature ... ... 4 " Stella .....

Medium
Hibiscus africanus major... ... 2 Bartonia aurea ... ... ... 1-1/2 Chrysanthemum, Star varieties ... 1-1/2 Coreopsis D...

Dwarf
Calendula, Orange King ... ... 1 " Lemon Queen ... 1 Cheiranthus Allionii ... ... 1 Chrysanthemum coronar...

Blue, Mauve, And Purple Shades
...

Tall
Cornflower, Blue 3 Larkspur, Stock-flowered, Blue 3 " " Pale Mauve ...

Medium
Godetia, Double Mauve 2 Lupinus Hartwegii, Azure Blue 2 Poppy, Mauve Queen ...

Dwarf
Asperula azurea setosa 1 Candytuft, Lilac 1 Convolvulus minor, Dark blue 1 " ...

Pink And Rose Shades
...

Tall
Cornflower, Pink 3 Larkspur, Stock-flowered, Rosy Scarlet 3 Lavatera rosea splendens ...

Medium
Clarkia elegans, Double Salmon 2 " " Double Delicate Pink 2 Godetia, Double Rose ...

Dwarf
Acroclinium, Double rose 1 " Single rose 1 Convolvulus minor, Pink 1 Eschsc...

Crimson And Scarlet Shades,
including Carmine and Ruby. ...

Tall
Coreopsis atrosanguinea 3 Helichrysum, Fireball 3 Poppy, Giant Double, Scarlet 3 Polygonum,...

Medium
Chrysanthemum atrococcineum 2 Clarkia elegans, Salmon scarlet 2 " " Firefly 2 Godetia, ...

Dwarf
Candytuft, Improved Carmine 1 " Dark crimson 1 Centranthus macrosiphon 1 Godetia, ...

Abutilon
Half-hardy greenhouse perennial Handsome plants, two feet or more in height, can be produced from seed and flowered in a single sea...

Achimenes
Greenhouse or stove perennials Although Achimenes can be propagated by division of the tubers, the simpler method of raising a supp...

Alonsoa
These popular half-hardy flowers are not only valuable for a summer display in borders, but they make charming subjects for the conser...

Amaryllis
Hippeastrum The majority of the named varieties are expensive, and a very considerable saving is effected by raising plants from se...

Anemone
The Windflower. Hardy perennial The discovery that it is easy to flower the popular St. Brigid and similar Anemones from seed in ab...

Antirrhinum
Snapdragon. Hardy perennial In bygone years Antirrhinums were seldom seen beyond the limits of old-fashioned cottage gardens. But e...

Aquilegia
Columbine. Hardy perennial Since the introduction of the long-spurred hybrid varieties the Aquilegia has become exceedingly popular...

Asparagus
Greenhouse foliage varieties. Half-hardy perennials The finely laciniated foliage of A. plumosus is greatly prized for bouquets, an...

Aster
Callistephus sinensis. Half-hardy annual In high summer so many flowers are available that no difficulty arises in making a varied ...

Aubrietia
Hardy perennial In the early months of the year few subjects in the garden present so gay an appearance as Aubrietias, for with the...

Auricula
Primula Auricula. Hardy perennial Keen is the enthusiasm of the Auricula amateur. The only complaint we ever heard about the flower...

Balsam
Impatiens Balsamina. Half-hardy annual The older methods of growing Balsams prescribed a false system, comprising disbudding, stopp...

Begonia, Tuberousrooted
Begonia hybrida. Half-hardy perennial One of the most remarkable achievements in modern horticulture is the splendid development of...

Calceolaria, Herbaceous
Calceolaria hybrida. Greenhouse biennial The present magnificent race of Herbaceous Calceolarias, both as to constitution and the b...

Calceolaria, Shrubby
Calceolaria rugosa. Half-hardy perennial Notwithstanding the ease with which cuttings of the Shrubby Calceolaria can be carried thr...

Canna
Indian Shot. Half-hardy perennial Cannas have ceased to be regarded simply as sub-tropical foliage plants, adapted only for the ado...

Carnation
Dianthus Caryophyllus fl. pl. Hardy perennial The Carnation belongs to the aristocracy of flowers and has attained the dignity of a...

Celosia Plumosa
Plumed Cockscomb. Greenhouse annual The conditions which suit a liberally grown Cockscomb will produce long graceful plumes of Celo...

Chrysanthemum
Hardy perennial and hardy annual The tedious method of propagating Begonias, Gloxinias, and Primulas by cuttings or layers has been...

Cineraria
Greenhouse annual The comparative ease with which the Cineraria can be well grown, together with the exceeding beauty and variety o...

Clarkia
C. elegans. C. pulchella. Hardy annuals The two distinct classes of Clarkia named above include several varieties that have long be...

Clerodendron Fallax
Stove shrub A very handsome erect shrub, which is extensively grown in tropical gardens. In this country it attains a height of abo...

Cockscomb
Celosia cristata. Tender annual This fine old-fashioned flower has won renewed popularity of late years, probably as the result of ...

Coleus
Stove perennial There is so much difficulty in carrying Coleus through the winter in vigorous health that the modern plan of treati...

Cosmea
Cosmos. Half-hardy annual Cosmeas make a striking show in the mixed border, and the flowers are also in large request for indoor de...

Cyclamen
Half-hardy perennial Gardeners of experience will remember the time when the predominant colours of Cyclamen were purple and magent...

Dahlia
Half-hardy perennial Both the double and the single classes of Dahlia are increasingly grown as annuals from seed, and this practic...

Daisy, Double
Bellis perennis fl. pl. Hardy perennial The remarkable development of the Double Daisy in recent years has raised this simple gar...

Delphinium
Hardy perennial Nearly all the perennial varieties may be raised from seed, and where large numbers are required this is the best m...

Dianthus
Pink. Biennials, hardy and half-hardy Many varieties of Dianthus claim attention for their elegant forms and splendour of colouring...

Digitalis
Foxglove. Hardy biennial Besides the native Purple Foxglove, largely grown in gardens, there are several very handsome varieties th...

Dimorphotheca
Half-hardy annual The Dimorphotheca, also called the Star of the Veldt, was introduced into this country from South Africa and, lik...

Eschscholtzia
Hardy perennial A decade or so ago the predominant colours found in Eschscholtzias were yellow and orange, but in recent years a nu...

Freesia
Half-hardy perennial The Freesia is another of the bulbous flowers easily raised from seed, and it may be had in bloom within six m...

Fuchsia
Half-hardy perennial To raise Fuchsias from seed will be new practice to many; but it is both interesting and inexpensive, and ever...

Gaillardia
Half-hardy perennial All the Gaillardias are most conveniently grown as annuals from seed. The plants remain in bloom for a long pe...

Geranium
Pelargonium. Half-hardy perennial Geraniums of all kinds are most valuable if treated as annuals. In their seedling state the plant...

Gerbera
Half-hardy perennial The Gerbera, also known as the Barberton or Transvaal Daisy, is a native of South Africa. Under cool greenhous...

Gesnera
Naegelia. Tender perennial An extremely beautiful ornament for stove or conservatory. The new hybrids freely produce spikes of br...

Geum
Hardy perennial The introduction of the well-known double variety, Mrs. Bradshaw, which may easily be flowered from seed in the fir...

Gladiolus
Corn Flag. Half-hardy perennial Formerly the Gladiolus was seldom raised from seed, probably because the seed obtainable was not wo...

Gloxinia
Tender perennial Gloxinias can now be flowered in the most satisfactory manner within six months from the date of sowing seed. Henc...

Godetia
Hardy annual So far as the culture of Godetias is concerned, the usual spring sowing and the regular treatment of hardy annuals wil...

Grevillea Robusta
Australian Oak. Greenhouse shrub In its native country, New South Wales, this is a stately tree. Here it is grown as a pot plant, a...

Hollyhock
Althaea rosea. Hardy perennial Generations of unnatural treatment had so debilitated the Hollyhock that disease threatened to banis...

Impatiens
Sultan's Balsam. Tender perennial Early sowing should be avoided for two reasons. The seed germinates but slowly in dull weather, a...

Kochia Trichophylla
Half-hardy annual This remarkable variety of K. scoparia is a miniature annual shrub, which is also known as Summer Cypress, or Bel...

Larkspur
Hardy annual The cultivation of the annual Delphiniums, more familiarly known as Larkspurs, is so simple in character that it calls...

Lavatera
Mallow. Hardy annual and hardy perennial Countryside gardens owe not a little of their floral brightness to the Mallows. The modern...

Lobelia
Annual and perennial; half-hardy There are several distinct classes of Lobelia, differing materially in height and habit. For dwarf...

Lupinus
Lupine. Hardy annual and hardy perennial Both the annual and the perennial Lupines are extremely valuable for garden decoration and...

Marigold
Tagetes. Half-hardy annual Marigolds of several classes are valued for the profuse display of their golden flowers in the later sum...

Marvel Of Peru
Mirabilis Jalapa. Half-hardy perennial This flower may be treated either as an annual or as a biennial. As an annual the plants are...

Mignonette
Reseda odorata. Hardy annual Mignonette is so much prized that we must devote to it a paragraph, although there is little to be sai...

Mimulus
Monkey Flower. Hardy perennial This flower will grow in almost any soil, although a moist retentive loam and a shady situation are ...

Myosotis
Forget-me-not. Perennials, hardy and half-hardy AT one time an impression prevailed that all the varieties of Myosotis were semi-aq...

Nemesia Strumosa Suttoni
Half-hardy annual THIS beautiful South African annual is remarkable for its floriferous character, long duration of bloom, and dive...

Nicotiana
Tobacco. Half-hardy annual The delicious fragrance of the Tobacco plant, especially during the morning and evening, has made it a g...

Pansy
Viola tricolor. Hardy perennial The popularity of this flower has been greatly extended and the culture simplified since it became ...

Pelargonium
Greenhouse perennial All kinds of Pelargonium may be raised from seed with the certainty of giving satisfaction if the work be well...

Pentstemon
Hardy perennial Penstemons when grown as half-hardy annuals are a valuable addition to beds and borders, where they produce a brill...

Petunia
Half-hardy perennial The Petunia affords another example of the immense strides accomplished in the art of seed-saving. Formerly th...

Phlox Drummondii
Half-hardy annual Those who are acquainted with the older forms of this annual might fail to recognise a friend under its new and i...

Phlox, Perennial
Hardy perennial The seed of perennial Phlox is very slow and erratic in germinating, and from a sowing made in September the seedli...

Picotee
Dianthus Caryophyllus fl. pi. Hardy perennial Seedling Picotees are extremely robust and free-flowering, and seed saved from the be...

Pink
Dianthus plumarius. Hardy perennial This old English flower is valued in every garden. Both the double and single varieties are eas...

Polyanthus
Primula (veris) elatior. Hardy perennial A sowing in February or March in pans will produce strong specimens for flowering in the f...

Poppy
Papaver. Hardy annual and hardy perennial The recent developments of this flower have brought it into great and deserved popularity...

Portulaca
Purslane. Half-hardy annual This is a splendid subject when the weather favours it. In a dry hot season, and on a sandy soil, Portu...

Primrose
Primula vulgaris. Hardy perennial The mere name of this flower is sufficient to recall visions of spring and perhaps of happy visit...

Primula Sinensis
Chinese Primrose. Greenhouse annual The history of the Chinese Primula since it first reached this country has an almost romantic i...

Ranunculus
Half-hardy perennial The Ranunculus can be grown either from seed or from roots. The seed is thinly sown from January to March, in ...

Ricinus
Castor-oil Plant. Half-hardy annual Although this plant flowers freely, it is grown in the sub-tropical garden principally for its ...

Saintpaulia
Greenhouse perennial A very remarkable perennial, only four inches high, obtained from eastern tropical Africa. The plant has flesh...

Salpiglossis
Half-hardy annual A highly ornamental half-hardy annual. The finest strains have large, open flowers, exhibiting extraordinary comb...

Salvia
Hardy annual and half-hardy perennial From a genus including 450 species a small number of Salvias have won deserved popularity for...

Schizanthus
The Butterfly Flower. Half-hardy annual At many leading horticultural displays in recent years masses of Schizanthus of extraordina...

Senecio Elegans
Jacobea. Hardy annual Among the double varieties, the crimson, purple, rose and white Senecios take the lead for beauty and usefuln...

Silene
Catchfly. Hardy annual Not one of the hardy annuals has established a better claim to be sown in autumn than the Silenes. Alone, th...

Solanum
Annual and perennial; half-hardy Solanums are of importance, some as greenhouse plants, and others as sub-tropical bedders. They ar...

Statice
Sea Lavender. Hardy and half-hardy annuals and hardy perennial It would be difficult to decide whether the Sea Lavenders are more h...

Stock
Mathiola. Annual and biennial half-hardy From the botanical standpoint Stocks comprise two main classes--the Annual and the Biennia...

Streptocarpus
Cape Primrose. Tender perennial The hybrids are a very striking race, invaluable for greenhouse and conservatory decoration, produc...

Sunflower
Helianthus annuus. Hardy annual The utility of the Sunflower has been alluded to in a former page. Here we have only to regard the ...

Sweet Pea
Lathyrus odoratus. Hardy climbing annual The history of the Sweet Pea can be traced back for more than two hundred years; and it is...

Sweet William
Dianthus barbatus. Hardy biennial Sweet William belongs to the same genus as the Pink. The finest strains produce superb heads of...

Torenia
Greenhouse annual Sow in a warm temperature in March or April. Prick off while small into pots, and subsequently pot the seedlings ...

Tropaeolum
Nasturtium, or Indian Cress. Hardy and half-hardy annuals The Tropaeolum tuberosum is treated under the 'Culture of Flowering Bulbs...

Verbena
Hardy and half-hardy perennials VERBENAS raised from the best strains of seed come true to colour and the plants are models of heal...

Viola
Tufted Pansy. Hardy perennial This plant well merits its popularity for use in beds and borders. It is perfectly hardy, the habit i...

Wallflower
Cheiranthus Cheiri. Hardy biennial Wallflowers are often sown too late. As a result the growth is not thoroughly matured, and the p...

Wigandia
Half-hardy perennial This plant is grown for its foliage, and is extensively used in sub-tropical gardening. The instructions given...

Zinnia
Zinnia elegans. Half-hardy annual THE double varieties of Zinnia have entirely eclipsed the single form of this flower. They grow t...

Spring Flowers From Seeds
It is the spring flowers that perhaps give the greatest charm and interest to the English garden. Commencing with the flowering trees,...

The Culture Of Flowering Bulbs
Our popular flowering bulbs are obtained from many lands; they are exceedingly diversified in character, and they bloom at different...

Achimenes
Showy stove bulbs remarkable for their beauty. Given a sufficiency of heat, the cultivation is of the easiest nature, for they grow ra...

Agapanthus
In favoured districts on the South coast this noble plant succeeds admirably if planted out between September and March in a rich, dee...

Allium
The Allium neapolitanum is the finest white-flowered variety, and is exceedingly valuable for bouquets and vase decoration. The large ...

Alstroemeria
An elegant plant which belongs to the nearly hardy group referred to in the notice of Ixia. In autumn it may be safely planted out in ...

Amaryllis
See remarks under Lilies at page 340. ...

Anemone
Windflower Our observations on this flower will be limited to the tuberous varieties; but even with this restriction, the range of ...

Babiana
Babianas are delicately constituted, but extremely elegant plants when well grown. Though far from showy, they appeal to the educated ...

Begonia, Tuberousrooted
Few flowers have a greater claim on the attention of horticulturists than the Tuberous-rooted Begonia, either for the ease with which ...

Chionodoxa
Glory of the Snow The varied blue tints of the Chionodoxa, its more open blossoms, and larger size, distinguish this flower from it...

Crocus
This brilliant harbinger of spring will thrive in any soil or situation, but to be brought to the highest possible perfection it shoul...

Crown Imperial
Fritillaria imperialis A noble plant which needs a deep, rich, moist soil, and an open situation, to insure the full degree of stat...

Cyclamen
Although it is advisable to raise Cyclamens from seed every year, occasions arise when it is necessary to store the bulbs for a second...

Dog'stooth Violet
The red and white varieties are as hardy as any plant in our gardens, and by their neat habit and elegant leaves and flowers they are ...

Freesia
The singularly graceful form, wide range of beautiful colours, and delicious perfume of this flower have made it an immense favourite;...

Fritillaria
Fritillarias produce bell-shaped flowers, varying in colour, but generally of a purplish tint, and beautifully spotted. They thrive in...

Gladiolus
The Gladiolus is adapted for many important uses and it associates admirably with Dahlias, Hollyhocks, Pyrethrums, and Phloxes in the ...

Gloxinia
Gloxinias may be had in bloom almost all the year by judicious management. When required for early flowering, those that start first ...

Hyacinth
One of the most valuable characteristics of the Hyacinth is the ease with which it can be flowered in a variety of ways by very simple...

Hyacinthus Candicans
An excellent companion to Delphiniums, Salvias, and perennial Lobelias in the mixed border. The stately spikes of this flower also ass...

Iris
The common varieties of Iris are well-known favourites of the border, and the whole family have claims on the attention of amateurs, o...

Jonquil
For its delicious fragrance and exquisite beauty the Jonquil has long been considered one of the most valuable of the Narciss family f...

Lachenalia
An elegant plant which is not quite hardy enough to be trusted in the open ground; but it is the easiest matter possible to grow it we...

Leucojum
The Spring Snowflake (L. vernum) blooms as early as February or March, and the Summer Snowflake (L. aestivum) comes into flower in May...

Lilies
Hardy border Lilies are among the most useful garden plants known. They are peculiarly hardy and robust, requiring no support from sti...

Montbretia
Of this useful autumn-flowering bulb there are several varieties, M. crocosmiflora probably being the most popular. In the warm and s...

Narcissus
Narcissi and Daffodils differ from Hyacinths, Tulips, and some other bulbs in one particular which is important, because it furnishes ...

Ornithogalum
Star of Bethlehem During the month of June O. arabicum produces heads of pure white fragrant flowers, each having a green centre. T...

Oxalis
These frame plants are suitable for the cool greenhouse or for forcing, and they are adapted also for the open border in peculiarly fa...

Ranunculus
To maintain a collection of named Ranunculuses demands skill and patience, but a few of the most brilliant self-coloured, spotted and ...

Scilla
The Blue Squill may be grown in exactly the same manner as the Roman Hyacinth for indoor decoration, and it makes a charming companion...

Snowdrop
Snowdrops are among the hardiest flowers known to our gardens, and are invaluable for their welcome snow-white bells in the earliest d...

Sparaxis
See instructions under Ixia at page 338. TIGRIDIA, or FERRARIA The short-lived blossoms of the Tiger Flower are most gorgeously...

Triteleia Uniflora
This little gem belongs to the spring garden, and should be the companion of the Dog's-tooth Violet, the Crocus, and the Snowdrop. It ...

Tritonia
Tritonias are more showy than the Ixia or Sparaxis, but belong to the same group of South African Irids, and require the same treatmen...

Tropaeolum
T. tuberosum.--A few of the tuberous-rooted Tropaeolums are hardy, but it is not wise to leave them in the ground, for damp may destro...

Tuberose
Polianthes tuberosa This bulb is extensively grown in the South of France for the delicious perfume obtainable from its numerous pu...

Tulip
Culture in Pots.--When grown in pots, Tulips are treated in precisely the same manner as the Hyacinth, but several bulbs, according to...

Vallota Purpurea
This brilliant plant is nearly hardy in the Southern counties, and a cool greenhouse plant where it cannot be grown in the open border...

Winter Aconite
The Winter Aconite is the very 'firstling' of the year, for it blooms in advance of the Snowdrop, covering the ground with gilt spangl...

Zephyranthes Candida
Flower of the West Wind A dwarf white Crocus-like flower, with foliage resembling the common Rush on a small scale. Plant in clumps...

Flowers All The Year Round From Seeds And Roots
Before proceeding to the duties which need attention in successive months of the year, it may be worth while to consider some of the...

January
In the open ground there is little or nothing of interest in the way of flowers, but the greenhouses and pits are full of promise. A...

February
A Considerable number of important flowers should be sown during this month. The precise dates depend on the district, the character...

March
The first duty is to ascertain that there are no arrears to make good or failures-to replace. If any sowing has gone wrong, do not was...

April
Many half-hardy flowers, such as Acroclinium, Convolvulus major, Linum rubrum, Nemesia, Salpiglossis, Schizanthus, and others, which a...

May
This is the chief month for bedding, and the crowded state of pits and houses creates a natural anxiety to push forward the work; yet ...

June
The days are now at their longest, and plants in pits and houses should have the full benefit of it. By opening the lights early, and ...

July
Antirrhinum.--A sowing in drills during the present month or August will supply plants for flowering next year. Transfer direct from t...

August
Annuals and Biennials, Hardy.--In the majority of English gardens the spring display of bulbous flowers is too often followed by a dre...

September
Agapanthus taxes the soil severely, and must have ample nourishment in pots. It is also one of the thirstiest bulbs known, but is quit...

October
Anemone.--The tuberous-rooted Anemones may be planted in the open at any time from September to March, and from successive plantings a...

November
Cyclamen.--Where there is a large demand for this flower, another sowing may be made this month, unless it was done in October. With s...

December
Only the idle or the half-hearted gardener will complain that he has no work to do in the short dark days of this month. Although ther...

The Pests Of Garden Plants
The life-history of plant pests and ground vermin, with the best means of saving various crops from their ravages, are dealt with in...

The Fungus Pests Of Certain Garden Plants
Many of our garden plants are liable to the attacks of fungi. Cures are in most instances unknown, but in some cases preventives--wh...

Savoy Cabbages
The Savoys are the tenderest and richest-flavored of cabbages, though not always as sweet as a well-grown Stone Mason; nor is a Savo...

Other Varieties Of Cabbage
I will add notes on some other varieties which have been tested, from year to year, in my experimental plot. The results from tests ...

Cabbage Greens
In the vicinity of our large cities, the market gardeners sow large areas very thickly with cabbage seed, early in the spring, to ra...

Cabbage For Stock
No vegetable raised in the temperate zone, Mangold Wurtzel alone excepted, will produce as much food to the acre, both for man and b...

Raising Cabbage Seed
Cabbage seed in England, particularly of the drumhead sorts, is mostly raised from stumps, or from the refuse that remains after all...

Cooking Cabbage Sour-krout
Cabbage when boiled with salt pork, as it is mostly used, is the food for strong and healthy digestive powers; but when eaten in its...

Cabbages Under Glass
The very early cabbages usually bringing high prices, the enterprising market gardener either winters the young plants under glass o...

Cold Frame And Hotbed
To carry on hot-beds on a large scale successfully is almost an art in itself, and for fuller details I will refer my readers to wor...

Cauliflower Broccoli Brussels-sprouts Kale And Sea-kale
My treatise on the cabbage would hardly be complete without some allusion to such prominent members of the Brassica family as the c...


Asparagus

Historical Sketch
The word "asparagus" is said to be of Persian origin. In middle Latin it appears as sparagus; Italian, sparajio; old French, esperaj...

Botany
The genus Asparagus belongs to the Lily Family. It comprises about one hundred and fifty species, and these are spread through the t...

Ornamental Species
A. medeoloides (Myrsiphyllum asparagoides), popularly known as Smilax.--For many years this has been, and is yet, one of the most com...

Edible Species
Asparagus officinalis.--While the young sprouts of a few other species may be used as food, this is the only one which has found...

Cultural Varieties
Although but one species of edible asparagus has found its way into general cultivation, many varieties and strains are recognized. ...

American Varieties
Barr's Mammoth (Barr's Philadelphia Mammoth).--Originated with Crawford Barr, a prominent market gardener of Pennsylvania. It is one o...

European Varieties
The named varieties of asparagus of European origin are very numerous, as almost every locality in which asparagus is cultivated exten...

Variety Tests
To determine the comparative effects of manuring on different varieties of asparagus, and also their comparative earliness, Prof. S. C...

Seed Growing
The asparagus plant begins to produce seed when two years old. When fully developed the stalks are from five to six feet in hight, w...

The Raising Of Plants
Asparagus can be propagated by division of the roots, but this method gives so unsatisfactory results that it is rarely practiced. R...

Sowing The Seed Where The Plants Are To Remain
Growing asparagus without transplanting is gradually finding many advocates among those who raise only the green article. It is not on...

Good Crops Two Years From Seed
In answer to the many inquiries as to how asparagus can be grown to weigh two and three-fourths pounds per bunch of twenty-six stalks ...

Pot-grown Asparagus Plants
In the tests made at the Missouri Experiment Station, Prof. J. C. Whitten found that it is much better to plant the seeds in six inche...

Selection Of Plants
That strong, healthy, one-year-old plants are in every way to be preferred to two or three year old ones has been demonstrated by ma...

Male And Female Plants
It has long been observed that all of the asparagus plants in a bed do not produce seeds, owing to the fact that the male and female f...

The Soil And Its Preparation
As asparagus in its wild state is usually found growing in light and sandy soils along or near the seashore, it has long been suppos...

Preparation Of The Ground
Asparagus differs from most other vegetables in that it is a perennial, and when once planted properly, in suitable soil, it will cont...

Planting
Throughout the Middle and Northern States, spring, as soon as the soil can be worked to good advantage, is decidedly the most favora...

Distance To Plant
As to the best distance between the rows and the plants in the rows there is a wide difference of opinion, more so than with almost an...

Depth Of Planting
Contrary to the all but universal belief, asparagus is not a deep-rooted plant. In the wild state its most frequent habitat is on the ...

Manner Of Planting
As in other details of asparagus culture, the methods of planting have undergone very material changes. The formerly usual practice of...

Placing The Roots
The proper planting of the roots is the most critical point in asparagus culture, as upon the manner in which this is performed--more ...

Cultivation
As generally understood, the chief object of cultivation is to kill weeds. This is an erroneous idea, however, as the appearance of ...

Care During The First Year
The cultural work in the asparagus bed during the first year consists in loosening the soil at frequent intervals, and especially as s...

Care During The Second Year
The treatment of the asparagus plantation during the second year does not differ materially from that of the first season after planti...

Care During The Third And Future Years
The third year cutting may begin in a moderate way, but too much should not be attempted. If all the conditions of growth have been fa...

Fall Treatment
The fall clearing of the plantation is an important part of asparagus culture. As soon as the berries are turning red--but not befo...

Renovating Old Asparagus Beds
The principal causes of asparagus beds running out are that in the first place ten plants are set out in a space where only one could ...

Fertilizers And Fertilizing
Asparagus is a gross feeder. There is hardly another plant in cultivation upon the vitality of which so great a demand is made. The ...

Salt As A Fertilizer
Salt is but little used now by commercial asparagus growers, though it has been recommended for this crop from time immemorial. About ...

Harvesting And Marketing
The chief labor in asparagus culture is the cutting and bunching. As it is of the greatest importance that the work be done promptly...

Cutting
As has been stated in a previous chapter, cutting should not begin until the plants have become strong and vigorous, which requires tw...

Sorting And Bunching
In some local markets asparagus is sold loose, by weight, in which case but little regard is paid to the size and length and color of ...

Marketing
During the entire process of cutting, sorting, bunching, and packing great care must be exercised not to bruise or in any way injure t...

Forcing
The forcing of asparagus in various methods has been practiced for centuries, and is rapidly developing into an important industry. ...

Forcing In The Greenhouse
With florists the forcing of asparagus has this important advantage: that the income obtained from it is nearly all gain, as the space...

Forcing In Hotbeds And Frames
The forcing of asparagus in hotbeds does not differ materially from that in the greenhouse, except in the supply of heat. "A most suit...

Forcing In The Field
Forcing asparagus where it is grown in the field has a twofold advantage over removing the roots to a warm place. First, it saves the ...

Preserving Asparagus Canning
The canning factory has made asparagus a vegetable for every day of the year instead of being a luxury for a few weeks, as was formerl...

Drying
Although the drying of asparagus is not much practiced in America, it is well worth the attention of those who at times have a surplus...

Injurious Insects
While a number of different insects feed upon the asparagus plant, there are only two species which have so far become extensively d...

The Common Asparagus Beetle
(Crioceris asparagi) This beetle is by far the most important enemy of the asparagus plant. It was first noticed in this country at...

The Twelve-spotted Asparagus Beetle
(Crioceris 12-punctata Linn) The presence of this insect in America was first detected in 1881, and it is still much rarer and cons...

The Asparagus Miner
(Agromyza simplex) In a recent bulletin from the New York Experiment Station, Prof. F. A. Sirrine describes a comparatively new and...

Fungus Diseases
Asparagus is subject to the attacks of a number of fungi, the most widespread and destructive being the "rust," the cause of which i...

Recognition Of The Rust
When an asparagus field is badly infested with the rust the general appearance is that of an unusually early maturing of the pla...

Methods Of Treating The Rust
All the cultivated varieties of asparagus are readily affected by the rust, although it has been found that some varieties, notably Pa...

Asparagus Leopard Spot
Attention was called to this new disease by Prof. W. G. Johnson, in Bulletin No. 50, Maryland Experiment Station, September, 1897. It ...

Asparagus In New England
Asparagus was grown in Concord, Mass., in a limited way as early as 1825. Mr. Edmund Hosmer used to carry it to market in season on hi...

Asparagus On Long Island
The cultivation of asparagus on Long Island does not differ materially, in most respects, from that practiced in other localities, oth...

Asparagus In New Jersey
An important point in asparagus culture is to remove the top growth in the fall of the year. For this purpose I use a mowing-machine, ...

Asparagus In The South
There is no crop grown by the Southern trucker that has paid better than asparagus year after year. With many of the other truck crops...

Asparagus Culture In California
The growing of asparagus for market in California is proving to be one of the most successful of its minor industries. There is a larg...

Asparagus In France
Asparagus is grown much more abundantly and to a much larger size in France than in England. The country is half covered with it in so...


Cucumbers

The Seed-bed For October:
To be sown from the 10th to the 20th of the Month. One load of horse-dung, or twenty barrows-full, will be sufficient for a one-l...

The Fruiting Frame
For Plants sown in October, November, December, and January. Four loads of dung will be sufficient for a three-light box, and the ...

The Seed-bed For January
To be sown in the beginning of the Month. As this is the season in which Gardeners in general sow seed for cucumbers, it will be ...

On The Management Required In The Culture Of The
Late Cucumber. The proper time to sow for late cucumbers, that is, such as are grown in boxes and lights, and have no necessity f...

On The Management Required In The Culture Of The
Hand-glass Cucumber. The best time to sow for the hand-glass cucumber is from the middle of April to the beginning of May; though...

Dimensions Of The Boxes And Lights For
Early and Late Cucumbers. Three-light Boxes for October sowing. The boxes should be made of good seasoned deal, one inch and a ...

On The Management Required In The Culture Of
Early and Late Melons. For early melons have three loads of dung for a three-light box; but if you have previously grown early cu...

Dimensions Of The Boxes And Lights For
Early and late Melons. Boxes and Lights for the first early Melons. The wood-work should be of the same thickness, as those dir...


Apple Growing

The Outlook For The Growing Of Apples
The apple has long been the most popular of our tree fruits, but the last few years have seen a steady growth in its appreciation an...

Production Of Apples In Barrels In The United States From 1896 To 1910
1896 69,070,000 1897 41,530,000 1898 ...

Heavy Plantings
Moreover, it should be further noted that this falling off in the apple crop has been in the face of the heaviest plantings ever know...

Future Of Apple Growing
In the writer's opinion the future of apple growing in the United States is likely to shape itself largely in the great commercial re...

Location
Having decided that under certain conditions the planting of an apple orchard will prove a profitable venture, and having ascertained...

Soils
In general, the apple prefers a rather strong soil, neither very heavy nor very light. Subsoil is rather more important than surface ...

Varieties
A proper soil and a good location and site having been selected, the next important question to be decided is the varieties to be pla...

Planting And Growing The Orchard
The proper soil, site, and location having been selected, the solution of the problems of orchard management is only just begun, alt...

When To Plant
The question of fall or spring planting is a less important one with a comparatively hardy fruit like the apple than it is with a mor...

Where To Buy
But one rule as to where to buy trees can be laid down. Buy where you can secure the best trees and where you can be sure of the most...

Fillers
Whether or not the planter of an apple orchard should use fillers is a question which he alone must decide. In the writer's opinion t...

Rectangular
The method of setting or the arrangement of the trees will greatly influence the number of trees which may be put upon an acre and th...

Hexagonal Or Triangular
Another method of arrangement of the trees which is becoming more and more popular is the hexagonal or triangular system. More trees ...

Preparation Of Soil
The previous condition and treatment of a soil for an orchard are important. If the soil has been in a good rotation of field crops, ...

Intercropping
The question of intercropping a young orchard is one to be carefully considered. As it is often practiced it is very injurious to the...

Pruning The Trees
Pruning is not an entirely artificial operation as one might at first thought suppose. It is one of nature's most common processes. ...

Reasons For Pruning
With these fundamental principles in mind we may safely outline a method of pruning an apple tree. As the desired end is different so...

Ideals In Pruning
The general method of pruning the old trees and the ideal in mind for it will also influence the pruning of the young tree, especiall...

Time Of Pruning
The particular time of the year for pruning is not vital. As between summer and winter pruning, winter is to be preferred because of ...

Pruning Tools
The best tool to use in pruning is one which brings you nearest to your work and over which you have the greatest control to make all...

Fruit Thinning
A matter which is quite nearly related to pruning is thinning the fruit, and may properly be treated here. That this is not as common...

Cultivation And Cover Cropping
In its broad sense cultivation is the treatment of the soil. Thus understood orchard cultivation includes the sod mulch system as we...

Late Fall And Early Spring Plowing
The common tillage practice in the sections where it is most followed is to plow either in late fall or as early as possible in the s...

Sod Mulch
The ordinary sod culture which is practiced in so many orchards should not be confused with the sod mulch system. The one is a system...

Manuring And Fertilizing
Cover crops may be said to be supplementary to tillage. In the previous chapter this function has been discussed. It now remains to ...

Non-leguminous Crops
The most important of the non-leguminous crops are rye, buckwheat, turnips or rape, barley, oats, and millet. The first mentioned are...

Legumes
In general, legumes are more valuable as cover and green manure crops than non-leguminous plants, because as a rule they are more ran...

Early Plowing
Many people make the common mistake of thinking that a green manure crop must be allowed to grow until late in June in order to secur...

Elements Of Fertility
Three elements are necessary for the growth of apple trees, nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash. To these lime may be added, althou...

Stable Manure
The necessary plant food is best supplied by stable manure applied at the rate of ten loads per acre for a light application to twent...

Commercial Fertilizers
Where manure is not available or where it cannot be applied in sufficient amounts, commercial fertilizers may be resorted to, after t...

Insects And Diseases Affecting The Apple
It is a common saying among farmers who have grown apples on their farms for many years that there are many more pests to fight than...

Reasons For Pest Increase
When there is an abundance of food and conditions are otherwise favorable, any animal or plant will thrive better than when the food ...

Insect Pests
Of the many insects which affect either the tree or the fruit of the apple, the nine selected probably inflict the most damage and ar...

Diseases
Although not as numerous as insects, the diseases which attack the apple inflict great damage and are fully as difficult to control. ...

The Principles And Practice Of Spraying
The spraying of fruit trees in the United States is of comparatively recent origin, having been a general commercial practice for le...

Contact Sprays
Four compounds are used as contact sprays in combating sucking insects, namely, lime sulphur, soaps such as whale oil soap, kerosene ...

Bordeaux Mixture
Fungicides are mixtures of chemical compounds made up for the purpose of controlling plant diseases caused by a class of plant weeds ...

Lime-sulphur
The more important fungicides, the commercial lime sulphur and the self-boiled lime-sulphur, are practically superseding Bordeaux as ...

Spray Pumps
The application of the foregoing spray mixtures is fully as important as the sprays themselves, for on the right application at the r...

Time Of Spraying
Fortunately it is not necessary to make a separate application for each insect and disease, but they may be treated together to some ...

Harvesting And Storing
Apples are practically never allowed to ripen on the trees but are picked and shipped green. By "green" we mean not fully ripe, not ...

Ladders
There are two general types of picking ladders, the rung and the step ladders. For large trees the rung ladders are the best. They ma...

Handling
The old custom of picking and laying on the ground in the orchard is a poor one and should not be followed, as it causes unnecessary ...

Storage
Car refrigeration and cold storage of fruit are comparatively modern developments. Few persons who have not been affected directly re...

Markets And Marketing
Having produced a good product, there remains the problem of making a profitable and satisfactory disposition of it. In many ways ma...

Types Of Markets
There are two general types of markets, the local, which is a special market and the general or wholesale market, both of which have ...

The Commission Man
The present system of marketing fruit products makes the commission man almost a necessity in the general market. Neither the grower ...

Co-operation
Individuals have practically no power to remedy such a state of affairs. So long as producers act independently they will have little...

Some Hints On Renovating Old Orchards
Nearly every general farm in the humid part of the United States has its small, old apple orchard. For the most part these orchards ...

Necessary Qualities
An apple orchard must have certain qualifications in order to make it worth while to spend the time and money necessary to accomplish...

Patching Old Trees
A few suggestions on patching up the weak places in an old tree may not be entirely out of place. The question is often asked, will i...

Cost
For the benefit of those who would like to get some idea of the probable cost of renovating old apple orchards, the following estimate...

The Cost Of Growing Apples
Two factors have always operated to deter many persons from taking up fruit growing as a business or even as a side issue on the far...

Factors In The Cost Of Production
The value of records depends on their accuracy and on their completeness. There are a great many factors which enter into the cost of...

Bringing To Bearing Age
The first of the following tables is given as a sample of one year's records, that of 1907, on this orchard in order to show both the...

In Bearing
Having given the reader an idea of the probable cost of bringing an orchard to bearing age, it may be well also to give the cost of p...


Walnut Growing

Walnut Growing In Oregon A Coming Industry Of Great National Importance
English walnuts for dessert, walnut confectionery, walnut cake, walnuts in candy bags at Christmas time--thus far has the average pe...

History In Brief
The so-called English walnut originated in Persia, where it throve for many centuries before it was carried to Europe--to England, G...

Test Trees Of Oregon
The first walnut trees were planted in Oregon in limited number for purely home use, just to see if they would grow, and they did. Thu...

Wood Of The English Walnut
The wood of the English walnut is very hard and close grained, and nearly as hard and tough as hickory. It will no doubt be valuable...

Young Groves Of Oregon
The Prince walnut grove of Dundee, Yamhill county, thrills the soul of the onlooker with its beauty, present fruitfulness, and great p...

Locations For Additional Groves
Much is heard, in a general way, of necessary climate and soil conditions for walnut culture, some giving preference to the hillside...

Planting
Gather the walnuts during the fall or winter, fall is better, and put them in boxes about the size of ordinary apple boxes, putting ...

What To Plant
Horticulturists of equal fame and experience take different views on the subject of planting, some contending that the nut should be...

Seedling Walnuts
The leading commercial orchard in the state is that of Mr. Thomas Prince, of Yamhill county, and is composed almost entirely of seed...

Grafted Trees
The testimony in favor of the grafted tree is not yet very abundant in Oregon, as the grafting business is new; but with the evidenc...

Walnut Grafting
Walnut grafting is in a class by itself, and walnut budding is not a success as practiced at the present time, although the ordinary...

Grafting Wax
The following formula is the grafting wax used by Mr. Payne: Rosin, 5 pounds. Beeswax, 1 pound. Finely pulverized charcoal...

Best Stock On Which To Graft
Mr. Burbank, Judge Leib, and George C. Payne, all of California, think the California black or some of its hybrids make the best sto...

Good Plan For Walnut Orchard
(3)------------------(3)------------------(3) : / : / : / ...

The Tap Root
Some experimenting has been done and much speculation has been indulged regarding the tap root. One writer disposes of the whole sub...

Walnut Cultivation
While the walnut is the hardiest of trees and in many cases has borne heavily in Oregon without cultivation, experience has proved t...

Pruning Walnuts
Walnuts require very little pruning. However, to do well they must have plenty of light and air, and there must be room under the tr...

Training The Trees
It will only be necessary to train the limbs in seven or eight feet all round to be able to double the number of trees to the acre. ...

No Diseases Injure Oregon Walnuts
The soft, moist atmosphere of western Oregon, so favorable to the English walnut, seems wholly unfavorable to pests that destroy the...

Pollination
Every fruit and nut grower should know the simple theory of pollination. When a tree appears thrifty but fails to produce, nine time...

The Harvest
The harvest comes in October, a convenient season where there are fruit crops to be taken care of. The process is extremely simple, ...

Washing And Drying
When the nuts are gathered and brought in they are put into a revolving barrel-churn holding about 12 to 16 gallons. Two buckets of ...

Sorting And Grading
After the walnuts are gathered, washed, dried and stored for a week or so to test the correctness of their drying, they are ready to...

Packing And Shipping
They are next put into pound cartons, or 50-pound bags, common gunny sacks, ready for the market. Not being perishable none are l...

Walnut Yield Per Acre
While it is generally found that seedling trees properly treated come into bearing the eighth year, this crop is usually light, doub...

The Walnut Market
The very fact that in 1907 Oregon-grown walnuts commanded several cents a pound higher price than those grown elsewhere indicates th...

Compared With Fruit
In comparing walnut culture with fruit, one must take into consideration the fact that distance from transportation facilities is no...

The Pound Package
It is difficult or impossible to establish a uniform package good for every year. Walnuts are not like other fruits; size is not a s...

Walnut Confectionery
The cut on page 5 shows the best method of cracking walnuts to extract the kernel in halves without breaking. Grasp the nut between ...

Nut Bread
1 pound hard wheat flour. 1 pound whole wheat flour. 1 cup good yeast. 1 cup ground walnuts. 1 tablespoonful Orleans mola...

Gems
Graham, wheatlet or cornmeal gems are greatly improved by adding a few walnut kernels ground fine. ...

Nut Cake
3 eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately, 1/2 cup--scant--butter, 3/4 cup milk, 1 cup walnuts ground or chopped, 1-1/2 cups granulat...

Chocolate Nut Cake
3 eggs, 3/4 cup each of brown and white sugar, 3/4 cup of coffee and milk mixed, 1 cup ground walnuts, 4 tablespoonfuls melted butter,...

Nut Cookies
3 cups sugar--Extra C preferred--3/4 pound of butter, 2 or 3 eggs, 1 cup of water, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, 1/2 a nutmeg, a lit...

Apple Nut Salad
4 cups of good tart apples cut in small cubes or chopped not too fine, 1 cup of coarsely ground, or chopped nuts. Stir lightly into th...

Dressing For Same
2-3 cup of cold water, 2 tablespoons strong vinegar, 1/2 cup of sugar. Add one egg, well beaten. Put this on the stove and stir consta...

By-products
In addition to walnuts as nuts, they pay handsomely as pickles. For this purpose they must be picked green. This could be made a mos...

Varieties
The beautiful nuts shown on Plate 3 are seedlings from the orchard of Mr. Thomas Prince, of Yamhill county. They are probably the ha...

Weights Kernel And Taste
The first Walnut Show was held at McMinnville, November 1, 1907, and was judged by H. M. Williamson, Secretary of the State Board of...

Who Should Invest
Professional men and women, business men and women, those living in cities and towns and confined to offices, stores and factories, ...


Small Gardens

Terms Used By Gardeners
=Mulching=--Term used for applying manure in a thick layer round the roots of shrubs, as a protection from frost. =Pricking off=-...

The General Arrangement Of The Garden
What to go in for, and what to avoid--Brick walls--Trees, their advantages and disadvantages, etc. It is imperative tha...

Lawn Paths Beds And Border
How to keep a lawn level--Paths, how to lay them--Beds and bedding--The new style versus the old--Flower-borders and their ...

On The Duty Of Making Experiments
Description of a small yet lovely garden--Colour schemes--The spring dell--A novel way of growing flowers--Variety in flower...

Some Neglected But Handsome Plants
The sweet old columbine--BOCCONIA CORDATA at Hampton Court-- CAMPANULAS as continuous bloomers--The heavenly larkspurs--Chri...

The Conservatory And Greenhouse
Mistakes in staging--Some suitable climbers--Economical heating--Aspect, shading, etc.--The storing of plants--No waste ...

The Tool Shed And Summer-house
Spades and the Bishop--Weeding without back-ache--The indispensable thermometer--Well-made tools a necessity--Summer-houses ...

Roses For Amateurs
Teas--Hybrid perpetuals--Some good climbing varieties--Treatment and soil--Rose hedges--Pillar roses. The reason for th...

Enemies Of The Garden
Slugs, and how to trap them--Blight or green fly--Earwigs-- Wireworm--Snails--Mice--Friends mistakenly called foes. =Th...

The Rockery
A few hints on its construction--Aspect and soil--A list of Alpines--Other suitable plants. A well-constructed rockery ...

Trees Shrubs And How To Treat Them
Some good plants for growing beneath them--Selection of hardy shrubs--Enriching the soil--Climbers. Forest-trees in a s...

The Ins And Outs Of Gardening
Planting--Watering--"Puddling"--Aspect--Shelter--Youth and age in relation to plants--Catalogue defects--A time for everythi...

The Profitable Portion
Fruit--The best kinds for a small garden--Avoidance of size minus flavour--Vegetables--Herbs. If a small garden has roo...

Annuals And Biennials
How to grow annuals--Some good kinds--Some good biennials. Many amateurs look upon annuals as rubbishy things to grow, and on...

Window Boxes
How to make them--Relation of box to residence they are intended to adorn--Suitable soil--Window plants for different aspect...

Table Decoration And Flowers In Season
Graceful arrangement--How to manage thick-skinned stems--Colour-schemes--Bad colours for artificial light--Preserving ...

The Propagation Of Plants
By dividing--By cuttings--By seeds--By layers. =Propagation may be affected in various ways=, of which division is perhaps t...

The Management Of Room Plants
Best kinds for "roughing" it--Importance of cleanliness--The proper way of watering them. The majority of English women...

Various Hints
Artificial manures--Labelling--Cutting off dead flowers--Buying plants--Tidiness in the garden, etc. With far the large...

Year Calender
JANUARY. Average Temperature 37. In frosty weather wheel manure on to ground. See that every plant which is not quite hardy ...

February
Average Temperature 39. Begin sowing hardy annuals outside in a sheltered position. Refrain from pruning rose-trees, or they will...


InDoor Gardening

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Cinerarias.--The plants intended for large specimens must receive their final shift, and be allowed su...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants will now require particular attention and a nice discrimination in the application of water...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Ventilation is requisite in mild weather, as stagnant air is always unfavourable, especially to the ...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The compost intended for the plants in these houses should be prepared and sweetened by several turnin...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Proceed with the potting of the young plants in the greenhouse, and the small specimens of all kinds, ...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As plants naturally, after their season of rest during the winter, now begin to grow, it is advisable ...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants occupying the beds in the conservatory to be arranged, cleaned, and pruned. If the health o...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. During continued frosty weather fires must be kept up in these houses, and then particular attention m...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Frequent attention is now necessary in the giving and taking away of air as the alternations of bright...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As the boisterous gales and violent showers that frequently occur at this season, succeeded by interva...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Proceed as diligently as possible with the repotting of such of the hardwooded greenhouse plants as re...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As the great proportion of greenhouse plants are now commencing, or are in active growth, constant att...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The shifting and repotting of all specimen plants in these houses have been completed, I hope, before ...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Some of the most hardy and woody plants may be removed from the greenhouse to a cold pit, where they c...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Keep the conservatory as cool by day as is consistent with the health of the plants. By such means the...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants that are introduced to the conservatory from the stove, forcing-pit, or any other such stru...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Attend in due time to all plants that require potting into larger pots; and pinch off the tops of all ...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. A free ventilation is of importance, and by closing with a humid atmosphere early in the evening a vig...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Attend carefully to the stock of plants for summer and autumn decoration, and do not allow them to suf...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As most plants here are now in active growth, they will require a liberal supply of water. If the sun ...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Azalea Indica.--Encourage free growth, as soon as possible after they have done blooming, by placing t...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The principal part of the greenhouse plants may now be removed to an out-of-door situation, open to th...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The stock of plants out of doors to be carefully looked over in showery weather that they may not suff...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Many of the finer kinds of hard-wooded plants--such as Boronias, Epacrises, &c.--will now be out of bl...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants permanently planted out in the borders of the conservatory should have a thorough soaking o...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Achimenes.--They delight in a steady, moist heat; to be shaded in the middle of hot days, to prevent t...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. If any of the stove plants, as lately recommended, have been brought into the conservatory, they will ...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The conservatory should now be gay with Balsams, Cockscombs, Fuchsias, Globe Amaranths, Heliotropes, a...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The conservatory borders will now require liberal supplies of water. Faded blossoms to be constantly r...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Bulbs.--The selections for winter and spring flowering to be made as soon as possible, choosing the mo...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As the majority of greenhouse plants are out in the open air, or in pits, where they have either set, ...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants in these houses should receive particular attention that they do not suffer from want of wa...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Balsams.--Give them a good watering when they show indications of drooping; but be cautious in waterin...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As boisterous winds, heavy rains, and other atmospheric changes occur about this time, it is advisable...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Finish housing the greenhouse plants, and give them as much air as possible; for if air is too sparing...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants that have been in the open borders during the summer to be taken up, the roots carefully cu...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants when newly set in the house are very liable to lose a portion of their leaves: these should...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The plants being cleaned, surfaced, staked, and arranged, they will require but little beyond the ordi...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The decline of temperature and less watering must go on progressively, more especially in dull weather...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As fresh air is indispensable for the health of plants, and as fogs occur about this time, it is essen...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Now that the dull, foggy days and sharp frosty nights have arrived, it is necessary to keep all plants...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Continue to admit air in favourable weather, but not in currents; shut up early; use water sparingly, ...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Careful attention should now be given to the picking off mouldy and dead leaves, decaying flower-stems...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. The great object should now be to keep them moderately dry; water, when necessary, to be given in the ...

First Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Every endeavour should now be made to keep these houses as gay as possible. Fire-heat to be applied oc...

Three Or Four Weeks To Produce Successional Crops
Pines.--The fruit now swelling will require the temperature and moisture of the house or pit to be kept up. Those intended for the mai...

Second Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Every dead, decaying, and mouldy leaf, and flowerstalk, to be removed as soon as they are seen. Mildew...

Thrid Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. As many of the hard-wooded plants are impatient of fire heat and a confined atmosphere, it is advisabl...

Fourth Week
GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. Continue to keep the supply of heat and moisture at the lowest degree compatible with the safety of th...

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